|Trade names||Loxitane, Adasuve, others|
|Drug class||Typical antipsychotic|
|Side effects||Movement disorders, sleepiness, dry mouth, blurry vision, low blood pressure with standing, fast heart rate|
|By mouth, powder for inhalation|
|Typical dose||60 to 100 mg per day|
|Metabolism||Extensive hepatic; active metabolites include amoxapine and 8-hydroxyloxapine. Inhibits P-gp and is a substrate of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6|
|Elimination half-life||4 hours (oral); 7.61 hours (inhalation)|
|Excretion||Majority are excreted within 24 hours, main route through urine (conjugated metabolites), small amounts through the feces (unconjugated metabolites)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||327.81 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|Melting point||109 to 110 °C (228 to 230 °F)|
|(what is this?)|
Loxapine, sold under the brand names Loxitane among others, is a typical antipsychotic used to treat psychosis including schizophrenia and for agitation. Benefit in people with intellectual disability is unclear. It is taken by mouth or inhaled.
Common side effects include movement disorders, sleepiness, dry mouth, blurry vision, low blood pressure with standing, and fast heart rate. Other side effects may include milk production, seizures, sunburns, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and increased risk of death in those with dementia. It is believed to work by blocking dopamine D2 and 5-HT2A receptors.
A brief review of loxapine found no conclusive evidence that it was particularly effective in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. A subsequent systematic review considered that the limited evidence did not indicate a clear difference in its effects from other antipsychotics.
It is generally started at 10 mg twice per day and is typically increased to 60 to 100 mg per day.
Loxapine can cause side effects that are generally similar to that of other medications in the typical antipsychotic class of medications. These include, e.g., gastrointestinal problems (like constipation and abdominal pain), cardiovascular problems (like tachycardia), moderate likelihood of drowsiness (relative to other antipsychotics), and movement problems (i.e. extrapyramidal symptoms [EPS]). At lower dosages its propensity for causing EPS appears to be similar to that of atypical antipsychotics. Although it is structurally similar to clozapine, it does not have the same risk of agranulocytosis (which, even with clozapine, is less than 1%); however, mild and temporary fluctuations in blood leukocyte levels can occur. Abuse of loxapine has been reported.
|Values are Ki (nM). The smaller the value, the more strongly the drug binds to the site.|
Mechanism of action
Loxapine is a "mid-potency" typical antipsychotic. However, unlike most other typical antipsychotics, it has significant potency at the 5HT2A receptor (6.6 nM), which is similar to atypical antipsychotics like clozapine (5.35 nM). The higher likelihood of EPS with loxapine, compared to clozapine, may be due to its high potency for the D2 receptor.
Loxapine is metabolized to amoxapine, as well as its 8-hydroxy metabolite (8-hydroxyloxapine). Amoxapine is further metabolized to its 8-hydroxy metabolite (8-hydroxyamoxapine), which is also found in the blood of people taking loxapine. At steady-state after taking loxapine by mouth, the relative amounts of loxapine and its metabolites in the blood is as follows: 8-hydroxyloxapine > 8-hydroxyamoxapine > loxapine.
The pharmacokinetics of loxapine change depending on how it is given. Intramuscular injections of loxapine lead to higher blood levels and area under the curve of loxapine than when it is taken by mouth.
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