|Trade names||Rexulti, Rxulti|
|Drug class||Atypical antipsychotic|
|Main uses||Schizophrenia, major depressive disorder|
|Side effects||Weight gain, movement disorder|
|By mouth (tablets)|
|Bioavailability||95% (Tmax = 4 hours)|
|Metabolism||Liver (mainly mediated by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6)|
|Elimination half-life||91 hours (brexpiprazole), 86 hours (major metabolite)|
|Excretion||Feces (46%), urine (25%)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||433.57 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Brexpiprazole, sold under the brand name Rexulti among others, is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder (MDD). In schizophrenia it may be used in those over the age of 12. It is taken by mouth.
Common side effects include weight gain and a movement disorder known as akathisia. Other side effects may include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, diabetes, problem gambling, and low white blood cells. Use in older people with dementia increases the risk of death. Safety in pregnancy is unclear. It is believed to work by affecting dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline in the brain.
Brexpiprazole was approved for medical use in the United States in 2015 and Europe in 2018. It is not available in the United Kingdom as of 2022. In the United States it costs about 1,200 USD per month as of 2022, regardless of the dose.
Brexpiprazole is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and as an adjunct for major depressive disorder.
It is started at a dose of 0.5 to 1 mg per day, which may be increased to a maximum of 4 mg per day.
The most common adverse events associated with brexpiprazole (all doses of brexpiprazole cumulatively greater than or equal to 5% vs. placebo) were upper respiratory tract infection (6.9% vs. 4.8%), akathisia (6.6% vs. 3.2%), weight gain (6.3% vs. 0.8%), and nasopharyngitis (5.0% vs. 1.6%).
Based on information given on the consent forms, it seems brexpiprazole is a substrate of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, like its predecessor aripiprazole. Participants in the clinical trials are advised to avoid grapefruit, Seville oranges and related citruses.
|mACh||52% at 10 μM||ND|||
|M1||67% at 10 μM||ND|||
|σ||96% at 10 μM||ND|||
|SERT||65% at 10 μM||Blocker|||
|NET||0% at 10 μM||Blocker|||
|DAT||90% at 10 μM||Blocker|||
|Values are Ki (nM). The smaller the value, the more strongly the drug binds to the site. Most or all data are for human cloned proteins.|
Brexpiprazole acts as a partial agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor and the dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. Partial agonists have both blocking properties and stimulating properties at the receptor they bind to. The ratio of blocking activity to stimulating activity determines a portion of its clinical effects. Brexpiprazole has more blocking and less stimulating activity at the dopamine receptors than its predecessor, aripiprazole, which may decrease its risk for agitation and restlessness. Specifically, where aripiprazole has an intrinsic activity or agonist effect at the D2 receptor of 60%+, brexpiprazole has an intrinsic activity at the same receptor of about 45%. For aripiprazole, this means more dopamine receptor activation at lower doses, with blockade being reached at higher doses, whereas brexpiprazole is the opposite.[further explanation needed] By contrast, brexpiprazole has a much higher affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor than aripiprazole as well as a much higher intrinsic activity. In vivo characterization of brexpiprazole shows that it may act as a near-full agonist of the 5-HT1A receptor. This may further underlie a lower potential than aripiprazole to cause treatment-emergent, movement-related disorders such as akathisia due to the downstream dopamine release that is triggered by 5-HT1A receptor agonism. It is also an antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT7 receptors, which may contribute to antidepressant effect. It also binds to and blocks the α1A-, α1B-, α1D-, and α2C-adrenergic receptors. The drug has negligible affinity for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and hence has no anticholinergic effects. Although brexpiprazole has less affinity for H1 compared to aripiprazole weight gain can occur.
In November 2011, Otsuka Pharmaceutical and Lundbeck announced a global alliance. Lundbeck gave Otsuka an upfront payment of $200 million, and the deal includes development, regulatory and sales payments, for a potential total of $1.8 billion. Specifically for OPC-34712, Lundbeck will obtain 50% of net sales in Europe and Canada and 45% of net sales in the US from Otsuka.
Society and culture
Brexpiprazole was under development for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as an adjunct to stimulants, but was discontinued for this indication. It reached phase 2 clinical trials for this use prior to discontinuation.
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