|Trade names||Diabeta, Flycron, others|
|Other names||Glyburide (USAN US)|
|Main uses||Type 2 diabetes|
|Defined daily dose||7 to 10 mg|
|Metabolism||Liver hydroxylation (CYP2C9-mediated)|
|Elimination half-life||10 hours|
|Excretion||Kidney and biliary|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||494.00 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|Melting point||169 to 170 °C (336 to 338 °F)|
Glibenclamide, also known as glyburide, is a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. It is recommended that it be taken together with diet and exercise. It may be used with other antidiabetic medication. It is not recommended for use by itself in diabetes mellitus type 1. It is taken by mouth.
Common side effects include nausea and heartburn. Serious side effects may include angioedema and low blood sugar. It is generally not recommended during pregnancy but can be used during breastfeeding. It is in the sulfonylureas class of medications and works by increasing the release of insulin from the pancreas.
Glibenclamide was discovered in 1969 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1984. It is available as a generic medication. A month supply in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about £3.20 as of 2019. In the United States the wholesale cost of this amount is about $2.50. In 2017, it was the 174th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than three million prescriptions.
It is used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
The defined daily dose is 7 to 10 mg by mouth depending on the formulation. In adults it is generally started at 2.5 mg per day for the first week and than increased to 5 mg per day for the second week. The typical dose is 5 mg twice per day with a maximum dose of 15 mg in a day.
Frequently reported side effects include: nausea, heartburn, weight gain, and bloating. The medication is also a major cause of medication-induced hypoglycemia. The risk is greater than with other sulfonylureas. Cholestatic jaundice is noted.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
Mechanism of action
The medication works by binding to and inhibiting the ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) inhibitory regulatory subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) in pancreatic beta cells. This inhibition causes cell membrane depolarization, opening voltage-dependent calcium channels. This results in an increase in intracellular calcium in the pancreatic beta cell and subsequent stimulation of insulin release.
After a cerebral ischemic insult, the blood–brain barrier is broken and glibenclamide can reach the central nervous system. Glibenclamide has been shown to bind more efficiently to the ischemic hemisphere. Moreover, under ischemic conditions SUR1, the regulatory subunit of the KATP- and the NCCa-ATP-channels, is expressed in neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, endothelial cells and by reactive microglia.
Glibenclamide is available as a generic, is manufactured by many pharmaceutical companies and is sold in doses of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg under many brand names including Gliben-J, Daonil, Diabeta, Euglucon, Gilemal, Glidanil, Glybovin, Glynase, Maninil, Micronase and Semi-Daonil. It is also available in a fixed-dose combination drug with metformin that is sold under various trade names, e.g. Bagomet Plus, Benimet, Glibomet, Gluconorm, Glucored, Glucovance, Metglib and many others.
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