Miglitol

From WikiProjectMed
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Miglitol
Structural diagram of miglitol
Names
Trade namesGlyset
  • (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)
    piperidine-3,4,5-triol
Clinical data
Drug classα-glucosidase inhibitor[1]
Main usesType 2 diabetes[1]
Side effectsDiarrhea, abdominal pain, increased intestinal gas[1]
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B3
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of
use
By mouth (tablets)
Typical dose300 mg TID[1]
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
US NLMMiglitol
MedlinePlusa601079
Legal
License data
Legal status
Pharmacokinetics
BioavailabilityDose-dependent
Protein bindingNegligible (<4.0%)
MetabolismNil
Elimination half-life2 hours
ExcretionRenal (95%)
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC8H17NO5
Molar mass207.226 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Density1.458 g/cm3
Melting point114 °C (237 °F)
  • OCCN1[C@@H]([C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)C1)CO
  • InChI=1S/C8H17NO5/c10-2-1-9-3-6(12)8(14)7(13)5(9)4-11/h5-8,10-14H,1-4H2/t5-,6+,7-,8-/m1/s1 checkY
  • Key:IBAQFPQHRJAVAV-ULAWRXDQSA-N checkY
  (verify)

Miglitol, sold under the brand name Glycet, is a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes.[1] It is taken by mouth.[1] It is used together with diet and exercise.[1]

Common side effects include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and increased intestinal gas.[1] Well there is no evidence of harm in pregnancy, such use has not been well studied.[2] It is an α-glucosidase inhibitor which decreases the break down complex carbohydrates into glucose.[1]

Miglitol was approved for medical use in the United States in 1996.[1] It is available as a generic medication.[3] In the United States it costs about 24 USD per month as of 2021.[3]

Medical uses

Dosage

It is taken at a dose of 300 mg three times per day.[1]

Chemistry

Miglitol, and other structurally-related iminosugars, inhibit glycoside hydrolase enzymes called alpha-glucosidases. Since miglitol works by preventing digestion of carbohydrates, it lowers the degree of postprandial hyperglycemia. It must be taken at the start of main meals to have maximal effect.[4] Its effect will depend on the amount of non-monosaccharide carbohydrates in a person's diet.

In contrast to acarbose (another alpha-glucosidase inhibitor), miglitol is systemically absorbed; however, it is not metabolized and is excreted by the kidneys.

See also

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 "Miglitol Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  2. "Miglitol (Glyset) Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Miglitol Prices, Coupons & Savings Tips - GoodRx". GoodRx. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  4. "Glyset (miglitol) tablets label - Accessdata FDA" (PDF). Drugs@FDA. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. August 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2013.

External links

Identifiers: