|Trade names||Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL, others|
|Defined daily dose||10 mg|
|Bioavailability||100% (regular formulation)|
90% (extended release)
|Protein binding||98 to 99%|
|Elimination half-life||2 to 5 hours|
|Excretion||Kidney and fecal|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||445.54 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|Melting point||208 to 209 °C (406 to 408 °F)|
|(what is this?)|
Glipizide, sold under the brand name Glucotrol among others, is an anti-diabetic medication of the sulfonylurea class used to treat type 2 diabetes. It is used together with a diabetic diet and exercise. It is not indicated for use by itself in type 1 diabetes. It is taken by mouth. Effects generally begin within half an hour and can last for up to a day.
Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, low blood sugar, and headache. Other side effects include sleepiness, skin rash, and shakiness. The dose may need to be adjusted in those with liver or kidney disease. Use during pregnancy or breastfeeding is not recommended. It works by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and increases tissue sensitivity to insulin.
Glipizide was approved for medical use in the United States in 1984. It is available as a generic medication. In the United States the wholesale cost per dose is less than US$0.05 as of 2018. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS less than GB£0.05 per dose as of 2018. In 2017, it was the 45th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 16 million prescriptions.
Mechanism of action
Glipizide sensitizes the beta cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans insulin response, meaning that more insulin is released in response to glucose than would be without glipizide ingestion. Glipizide acts by partially blocking potassium channels among beta cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. By blocking potassium channels, the cell depolarizes, which results in the opening of voltage-gated calcium channels. The resulting calcium influx encourages insulin release from beta cells.
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