Glipizide

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Glipizide
Glipizide.svg
Glipizide ball-and-stick.png
Names
Trade namesGlucotrol, Glucotrol XL, others
Clinical data
Drug classSulfonylurea
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: C
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
use
By mouth
Defined daily dose10 mg[1]
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa684060
Legal
Legal status
Pharmacokinetics
Bioavailability100% (regular formulation)
90% (extended release)
Protein binding98 to 99%
MetabolismLiver hydroxylation
Elimination half-life2 to 5 hours
ExcretionKidney and fecal
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC21H27N5O4S
Molar mass445.54 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point208 to 209 °C (406 to 408 °F)
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Glipizide, sold under the brand name Glucotrol among others, is an anti-diabetic medication of the sulfonylurea class used to treat type 2 diabetes.[2] It is used together with a diabetic diet and exercise.[2][3] It is not indicated for use by itself in type 1 diabetes.[2] It is taken by mouth.[2] Effects generally begin within half an hour and can last for up to a day.[2]

Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, low blood sugar, and headache.[2] Other side effects include sleepiness, skin rash, and shakiness.[4] The dose may need to be adjusted in those with liver or kidney disease.[2] Use during pregnancy or breastfeeding is not recommended.[4] It works by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and increases tissue sensitivity to insulin.[2]

Glipizide was approved for medical use in the United States in 1984.[2] It is available as a generic medication.[2] In the United States the wholesale cost per dose is less than US$0.05 as of 2018.[5] In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS less than GB£0.05 per dose as of 2018.[4] In 2017, it was the 45th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 16 million prescriptions.[6][7]

Medical uses

Dosage

The defined daily dose is 10 mg by mouth.[1]

Mechanism of action

Glipizide sensitizes the beta cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans insulin response, meaning that more insulin is released in response to glucose than would be without glipizide ingestion.[3] Glipizide acts by partially blocking potassium channels among beta cells of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. By blocking potassium channels, the cell depolarizes, which results in the opening of voltage-gated calcium channels. The resulting calcium influx encourages insulin release from beta cells.[8]

History

It was patented in 1969 and approved for medical use in 1971.[9] Glipizide was approved for medical use in the United States in 1984.[2]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "WHOCC - ATC/DDD Index". www.whocc.no.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 "Glipizide Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. AHFS. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Glucotrol XL- glipizide tablet, extended release". DailyMed. 17 August 2018. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 British national formulary : BNF 76 (76 ed.). Pharmaceutical Press. 2018. p. 693. ISBN 9780857113382.
  5. "NADAC as of 2018-12-19". Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  6. "The Top 300 of 2020". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  7. "Glipizide - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  8. Bösenberg LH, Van Zyl DG (December 2008). "The mechanism of action of oral antidiabetic drugs: a review of recent literature". Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. 13 (3): 80–8. doi:10.1080/22201009.2008.10872177.
  9. Fischer J, Ganellin CR (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 449. ISBN 9783527607495.

External links

External sites:
Identifiers: