|Trade names||Citanest, Prilotekal, others|
|Drug class||Local anesthetic (amide)|
|Main uses||Numbing a specific area, nerve block, spinal anesthesia|
|Side effects||Dizziness, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, nausea, arrhythmia|
|Metabolism||Liver and kidney|
|Elimination half-life||10-150 minutes, longer with impaired liver or kidney function|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||220.316 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|Melting point||37 to 38 °C (99 to 100 °F)|
Prilocaine, sold under the trade name Citanest among others, is a local anesthetic used for numbing a specific area, for a nerve block, or as part of spinal anesthesia. It is used by injection. It is also available as a lidocaine/prilocaine cream.
Side effects may include dizziness, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, nausea, and arrhythmia. Other side effects may include methemoglobinemia and cardiac arrest. Use in pregnancy appears to be relatively safe. It is an amide type local anesthetic.
Prilocaine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1965. In the United Kingdom 50 mL of a 1% solution costs about £5. Manufacture has been discontinued in the United States as of 2012; though it previously costs about 1 USD for 1.8 mL of a 4% solution.
It is given as a combination with the vasoconstrictor epinephrine. It is used as an eutectic mixture with lidocaine, 50% w/w, as lidocaine/prilocaine. The mixture is an oil with a melting point of 18 °C (64 °F). A 5% emulsion preparation, containing 2.5% each of lidocaine/prilocaine, under the trade name EMLA (an abbreviation for eutectic mixture of local anesthetics).
In some patients, ortho-toluidine, a metabolite of prilocaine, may cause methemoglobinemia, which may be treated with methylene blue. Prilocaine may also be contraindicated in people with sickle cell anemia, anemia, or symptomatic hypoxia.
Society and culture
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