|Trade names||Fetroja, Fetcroja|
|Other names||Cephiderocol, RSC-649266|
|Drug class||Siderophore cephalosporin|
|Main uses||Urinary tract infections, hospital acquired pneumonia|
|Side effects||Diarrhea, injection site pain, constipation, rash, candidiasis, liver problems, low potassium|
|Typical dose||2 g TID|
|Elimination half-life||2.8 hours|
|Excretion||Mainly kidney (60–70% unchanged)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||752.21 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Cefiderocol, sold under the brand name Fetroja among others, is an antibiotic used to treat complicated urinary tract infections and hospital acquired pneumonia. It is used when other treatments might not work, including for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is given by injection into a vein.
Common side effects include diarrhea, pain at the site of injection, constipation, rash, candidiasis, liver problems, and low potassium. Other side effects may include anaphylaxis, Clostridioides difficile infection, and seizures. Safety in pregnancy is unclear. It is in the cephalosporin family of medications.
Cefiderocol was approved for medical use in the United States in 2019 and Europe in 2020. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. In the United Kingdom 5 doses costs about £1,300. This amount in the United States is about 2,000 USD.
Cefiderocol is used to treat adults with complicated urinary tract infections, including kidney infections caused by susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms, who have limited or no alternative treatment options. It is used to treat multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
In the United States, cefiderocol is indicated in adults 18 years of age or older who have limited or no alternative treatment options for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), including pyelonephritis caused by the following susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae complex.
For the treatment of severe pneumonia (HABP and VABP), it is indicated in patients 18 years of age and older whose pneumonia is not responding to other, more commonly used antibiotics and is confirmed to be caused by one of the following Gram-negative organisms:
- Acinetobacter baumannii complex
- Escherichia coli
- Enterobacter cloacae complex
- Klebsiella pneumoniae
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
- Serratia marcescens
This indication is supported by the APEKS-NP study, where cefiderocol was compared to meropenem (a widely used antibiotic for multidrug-resistant bacteria causing pneumonia, among other diseases), where it was shown not to be inferior to meropenem. The primary endpoint of the study was all-cause mortality at day 14, where both antibiotics were shown to be almost equally effective.
In the European Union, cefiderocol is indicated for the treatment of infections due to aerobic Gram-negative organisms in adults with limited treatment options.
It is generally used at a dose of 2 g given every 8 hours.
An increased risk of dying was observed in people treated with cefiderocol as compared to other antibiotics in a separate clinical trial. Most of the deaths occurred in people hospitalized with other kinds of severe bacterial infections (pneumonia, sepsis, or infection in the blood). The cause of death was not clear.
Labeling for cefiderocol includes a warning regarding the higher all-cause mortality rate observed in cefiderocol-treated people compared to those treated with other antibiotics in a trial in critically ill people with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. The cause of the increase in mortality has not been established. Some of the deaths were a result of worsening or complications of infection, or underlying co-morbidities. The higher all-cause mortality rate was observed in people treated for hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia (i.e.nosocomial pneumonia), bloodstream infections, or sepsis. The safety and efficacy of cefiderocol has not been established for the treatment of these types of infections.
Mechanism of action
Its mechanism of entry into bacterial cells is by binding to iron, which is actively transported into the bacterial cells along with the cefiderocol. It is in a medication class known as siderophores, and was the first siderophore antibiotic to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It bypasses the bacterial porin channels by using the bacteria's own iron-transport system for being transported in.
In 2019, cefiderocol was approved in the United States as an antibacterial drug for treatment of adults 18 years of age or older with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI), including kidney infections caused by susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms, who have limited or no alternative treatment options.
The safety and effectiveness of cefiderocol was demonstrated in a study (NCT02321800) of 448 participants with cUTIs. Of the participants who were administered cefiderocol, 72.6% had resolution of symptoms and eradication of the bacteria approximately seven days after completing treatment, compared with 54.6% in participants who received an alternative antibiotic. The clinical response rates were similar between the two treatment groups. The trial included participants from Europe, United States and Mexico.
In the clinical trial, participants with cUTI were chosen at random to receive cefiderocol, or another antibacterial drug called imipenem/cilastatin. Both treatments were given intravenously for 7–14 days and neither the participants nor the health care professionals knew which drugs were given until after the trial was complete. Participants could not be switched to an oral antibacterial drug to complete the treatment for cUTI.
The benefit of cefiderocol was measured by the proportion of participants who achieved cure or improvement in their symptoms related to cUTI and a negative urine culture test in comparison to imipenem/cilastatin.
Cefiderocol received a Qualified Infectious Disease Product designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and was granted priority review. The FDA granted approval of Fetroja, on 14 November 2019, to Shionogi & Co., Ltd.
Cefiderocol was approved for medical use in the European Union in April 2020.
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|journal=(help)CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of May 2021 (link)
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