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Avibactam structure 2.svg
Avibactam ball-and-stick model.png
Clinical data
Trade namesAvycaz (formulated with ceftazidime)
License data
Routes of
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability100% (intravenous)
Protein binding5.7–8.2%[1]
Onset of actionIncreases in proportion to dose
ExcretionRenal (97%)
  • [(2S,5R)-2-Carbamoyl-7-oxo-1,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-6-yl] hydrogen sulfate
CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass265.24 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • [C@]12C[N@]([C@@H](CC1)C(N)=O)C(=O)N2OS(O)(=O)=O
  • InChI=1S/C7H11N3O6S/c8-6(11)5-2-1-4-3-9(5)7(12)10(4)16-17(13,14)15/h4-5H,1-3H2,(H2,8,11)(H,13,14,15)/t4-,5+/m1/s1

Avibactam is a non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor[2] developed by Actavis (now Teva) jointly with AstraZeneca. A new drug application for avibactam in combination with ceftazidime (branded as Avycaz) was approved by the FDA on February 25, 2015, for treating complicated urinary tract (cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) caused by antibiotic resistant-pathogens, including those caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.[3][4][5]

Increasing resistance to cephalosporins among Gram-(−) bacterial pathogens, especially among hospital-acquired infections, results in part from the production of β-lactamase enzymes that deactivate these antibiotics. While the co-administration of a β-lactamase inhibitor can restore antibacterial activity to the cephalosporin, previously approved β-lactamase inhibitors such as tazobactam and clavulanic acid do not inhibit important classes of β-lactamases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1), and AmpC-type β-lactamases. Whilst avibactam inhibits class A (KPCs, CTX-M, TEM, SHV), class C (AmpC), and, some, class D serine β-lactamases (such as OXA-23, OXA-48), it has been reported to be a poor substrate/weak inhibitor of class B metallo-β-lactamases, such as VIM-2, VIM-4, SPM-1, BcII, NDM-1, Fez-1.[6]

For infections sustained by metallo-β-lactamases producing bacteria, a therapeutic strategy consists in administering avibactam as companion drug administered alongside aztreonam. In fact, although in theory aztreonam is not hydrolyzed by metallo-β-lactamases, many metallo-β-Lactamases-producing strains co-produce enzymes that could hydrolyze aztreonam (e.g. AmpC, ESBL), therefore avibactam is given to protect aztreonam exploiting its robust β-lactamases inhibition.[7]

See also


  1. ^ "Full Prescribing Information: AVYCAZ™ (ceftazidime-avibactam) for Injection, for intravenous use". ©2015 Actavis. All rights reserved. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  2. ^ Wang DY, Abboud MI, Markoulides MS, Brem J, Schofield CJ (June 2016). "The road to avibactam: the first clinically useful non-β-lactam working somewhat like a β-lactam". Future Medicinal Chemistry. 8 (10): 1063–84. doi:10.4155/fmc-2016-0078. PMID 27327972.
  3. ^ Zhanel GG, Lawson CD, Adam H, Schweizer F, Zelenitsky S, Lagacé-Wiens PR, et al. (February 2013). "Ceftazidime-avibactam: a novel cephalosporin/β-lactamase inhibitor combination". Drugs. 73 (2): 159–77. doi:10.1007/s40265-013-0013-7. PMID 23371303. S2CID 32700350.
  4. ^ "Actavis Announces FDA Acceptance of the NDA Filing for Ceftazidime-Avibactam, a Qualified Infectious Disease Product". Actavis—a global, integrated specialty pharmaceutical company—Actavis. Actavis plc. Archived from the original on 27 May 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  5. ^ Ehmann DE, Jahic H, Ross PL, Gu RF, Hu J, Durand-Réville TF, et al. (September 2013). "Kinetics of avibactam inhibition against Class A, C, and D β-lactamases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288 (39): 27960–71. doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.485979. PMC 3784710. PMID 23913691.
  6. ^ Abboud MI, Damblon C, Brem J, Smargiasso N, Mercuri P, Gilbert B, et al. (October 2016). "Interaction of Avibactam with Class B Metallo-β-Lactamases". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 60 (10): 5655–62. doi:10.1128/AAC.00897-16. PMC 5038302. PMID 27401561.
  7. ^ Mauri C, Maraolo AE, Di Bella S, Luzzaro F, Principe L (2021-08-20). "The Revival of Aztreonam in Combination with Avibactam against Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negatives: A Systematic Review of In Vitro Studies and Clinical Cases". Antibiotics. 10 (8): 1012. doi:10.3390/antibiotics10081012. ISSN 2079-6382. PMC 8388901. PMID 34439062.

External links