Enterobacter cloacae

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Enterobacter cloacae
Enterobacter cloacae on tryptic soy agar
Scientific classification edit
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Pseudomonadota
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Enterobacterales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Enterobacter
E. cloacae
Binomial name
Enterobacter cloacae
(Jordan 1890)
Hormaeche and Edwards 1960

Aerobacter cloacae (Jordan 1890) Hormaeche and Edwards 1958
Erwinia dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Burkholder 1948
Pseudomonas dissolvens Rosen 1922
Bacterium dissolvens Rosen 1922
Phytomonas dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Rosen 1926
Aplanobacter dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Rosen 1926
Aerobacter dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Waldee 1945
Enterobacter dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Brenner et al. 1988

Enterobacter cloacae is a clinically significant Gram-negative, facultatively-anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium.


In microbiology laboratories, E. cloacae is frequently grown at 30°C on nutrient agar or at 35°C in tryptic soy broth.[1] It is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium, is facultatively anaerobic, and bears peritrichous flagella. It is oxidase-negative and catalase-positive.[2]

Industrial use

Enterobacter cloacae has been used in a bioreactor-based method for the biodegradation of explosives and in the biological control of plant diseases.[3] Enterobacter cloacae strain MBB8 isolated from the Gulf of Mannar, India was reported to degrade poly vinyl alcohol (PVA). This was the first report of a PVA degrader from the Enterobacter genus. [4] E. cloacae was also reported to produce exopolysaccharide (EPS) as high as 18.3g/L. [5] GC-MS analysis of E. cloacae EPS showed the presence of glucose and mannose in the molar ratio of 1: 1.5e−2.[5]

Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain PR-4 was isolated and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence with phylogenetic tree view from explosive-laden soil by P. Ravikumar (GenBank accession number KP261383).[6]

E. cloacae SG208 identified as a predominant microorganism in mixed culture isolated from petrochemical sludge (IOCL, Guwahati) responsible for degradation of benzene was reported by Padhi and Gokhale (2016).[7]


Enterobacter cloacae is considered a biosafety level 1 organism in the United States and level 2 in Canada.[citation needed]


A draft genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae was announced in 2012. The bacteria used in the study were isolated from giant panda feces.[8]

Clinical significance

Localized infection of Enterobacter cloacae developed on individuals left forehead.

Enterobacter cloacae is a member of the normal gut flora of many humans and is not usually a primary pathogen.[9]

Some strains have been associated with urinary tract and respiratory tract infections in immunocompromised individuals. Treatment with cefepime and gentamicin has been reported.[10]

A 2012 study in which Enterobacter cloacae was transplanted into previously germ-free mice resulted in increased obesity when compared with germ-free mice fed an identical diet, suggesting a link between obesity and the presence of Enterobacter gut flora.[11]

See also


  1. Dalben M, Varkulja G, Basso M, Krebs VL, Gibelli MA, van der Heijden I, Rossi F, Duboc G, Levin AS, Costa SF (September 2008). "Investigation of an outbreak of Enterobacter cloacae in a neonatal unit and review of the literature". The Journal of Hospital Infection. 70 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2008.05.003. PMID 18632183.
  2. "Biochemical Test and Identification of Enterobacter cloacae". microbiologyinfo. 24 May 2017. Archived from the original on 28 May 2023. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  3. Pudge IB, Daugulis AJ, Dubois C (2003). "The use of Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 43560 in the development of a two-phase partitioning bioreactor for the destruction of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX)". Journal of Biotechnology. 100 (1): 65–75. doi:10.1016/s0168-1656(02)00229-8. PMID 12413787.
  4. Prakash Shyam K, Rajkumar P, Ramya V, and Mohisha Miriam LR (2021). "Biorefining Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) by Enterobacter cloacae and its Polyhydroxy Butyrate (PHB) Production Ability". Industrial Biotechnology. 17 (2): 92–99. doi:10.1089/ind.2020.0039. S2CID 235579922.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Prakash Shyam K, Rajkumar P, Ramya V, Sivabalan S, Kings JA, and Mohisha Miriam LR (2021). "Exopolysaccharide production by optimized medium using novel marine Enterobacter cloacae MBB8 isolate and its antioxidant potential". Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications. 2: 100070. doi:10.1016/j.carpta.2021.100070.
  6. Ravikumar. P. GenBank New holotype for Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain PR-4 isolated and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence with Phylogenetic tree view, from explosive laden soil. Int J.of Res in Engineering and Science, (6) 5:53-65 2016.
  7. Padhi, S.K., Gokhale, S., 2016. Benzene biodegradation by indigenous mixed microbial culture: Kinetic modeling and process optimization. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. doi:10.1016/j.ibiod.2016.10.011
  8. Yan, Y; Zhao, CW; Zhang, YZ; Zhang, ZH; Pan, GL; Liu, WW; Ma, QY; Hou, R; Tan, XM (December 2012). "Draft Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae Strain 08XA1, a Fecal Bacterium of Giant Pandas". Journal of Bacteriology. 194 (24): 6928–9. doi:10.1128/JB.01790-12. PMC 3510591. PMID 23209197.
  9. Keller, R; Pedroso, MZ; Ritchmann, R; Silva, RM (February 1998). "Occurrence of virulence-associated properties in Enterobacter cloacae". Infection and Immunity. 66 (2): 645–9. doi:10.1128/IAI.66.2.645-649.1998. PMC 113501. PMID 9453621.
  10. Barnes BJ, Wiederhold NP, Micek ST, Polish LB, Ritchie DJ (April 2003). "Enterobacter cloacae ventriculitis successfully treated with cefepime and gentamicin: case report and review of the literature". Pharmacotherapy. 23 (4): 537–42. doi:10.1592/phco.23.4.537.32126. PMID 12680484. S2CID 22547516.
  11. Na Fei; Liping Zhao (13 December 2012). "An opportunistic pathogen isolated from the gut of an obese human causes obesity in germfree mice". The ISME Journal. 7 (4): 880–884. doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.153. PMC 3603399. PMID 23235292.

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