Cefoperazone

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Cefoperazone
Cefoperazone.svg
Cefoperazone ball-and-stick.png
Names
  • (6R,7R)-7-[(2R)-2-{[(4-Ethyl-2,3-dioxopiperazin-1-yl)carbonyl]amino}-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3-{[(1-methyl-1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-yl)sulfanyl]methyl}-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMicromedex Detailed Consumer Information
US NLMCefoperazone
MedlinePlusa601206
Pharmacokinetics
ExcretionHepatic
Identifiers
CAS Number
  • 62893-19-0 checkY
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
ATC code
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC25H27N9O8S2
Molar mass645.67 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • O=C2N1/C(=C(\CS[C@@H]1[C@@H]2NC(=O)[C@@H](c3ccc(O)cc3)NC(=O)N4C(=O)C(=O)N(CC)CC4)CSc5nnnn5C)C(=O)O
  • InChI=1S/C25H27N9O8S2/c1-3-32-8-9-33(21(39)20(32)38)24(42)27-15(12-4-6-14(35)7-5-12)18(36)26-16-19(37)34-17(23(40)41)13(10-43-22(16)34)11-44-25-28-29-30-31(25)2/h4-7,15-16,22,35H,3,8-11H2,1-2H3,(H,26,36)(H,27,42)(H,40,41)/t15-,16-,22-/m1/s1 checkY
  • Key:GCFBRXLSHGKWDP-XCGNWRKASA-N checkY

Cefoperazone is an antibiotic, marketed by Pfizer under the name Cefobid. It is one of few cephalosporin antibiotics effective in treating Pseudomonas bacterial infections which are otherwise resistant to these antibiotics.

It is in the third-generation cephalosporin family of medications and works by interfering with the bacteria's cell wall.[1]

It was patented in 1974 and approved for medical use in 1981.[2] It is no longer available in the United States.[1] Cefoperazone/sulbactam (Sulperazon) is a co-formulation with sulbactam.

Spectrum of bacterial susceptibility

Cefoperazone has a broad spectrum of activity and has been used to target bacteria responsible for causing infections of the respiratory and urinary tract, skin, and the female genital tract. The following represents MIC susceptibility data for a few medically significant microorganisms.

  • Haemophilus influenzae: 0.12 - 0.25 µg/ml
  • Staphylococcus aureus: 0.125 - 32 µg/ml
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae: ≤0.007 - 1 µg/ml[3]

Side effects

Cefoperazone contains an N-methylthiotetrazole (NMTT or 1-MTT) side chain. As the antibiotic is broken down in the body, it releases free NMTT, which can cause hypoprothrombinemia (likely due to inhibition of the enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase) and a reaction with ethanol similar to that produced by disulfiram (Antabuse), due to inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase.[4]

Mechanism of action

Cefoperazone exerts its bactericidal effect by inhibiting the bacterial cell wall synthesis, and sulbactam acts as a beta-lactamase inhibitor, to increase the antibacterial activity of cefoperazone against beta-lactamase-producing organisms.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Beauduy, Camille E.; Winston, Lisa G. (2020). "43. Beta-lactam and other cell wall - & membrane - active antibiotics". In Katzung, Bertram G.; Trevor, Anthony J. (eds.). Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (15th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 832. ISBN 978-1-260-45231-0. Archived from the original on 2021-10-10. Retrieved 2021-11-30.
  2. Fischer J, Ganellin CR (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 494. ISBN 9783527607495. Archived from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  3. "Cefoperazone (Cefobid) - The Antimicrobial Index Knowledgebase - TOKU-E". antibiotics.toku-e.com. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  4. Stork CM (2006). "Antibiotics, antifungals, and antivirals". In Nelson LH, Flomenbaum N, Goldfrank LR, Hoffman RL, Howland MD, Lewin NA (eds.). Goldfrank's toxicologic emergencies. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 847. ISBN 0-07-143763-0. Archived from the original on 2013-06-13. Retrieved 2009-07-03.