Bottle of piperacillin/tazobactam
|Trade names||Tazocin, Zosyn, others|
|Defined daily dose||14 gram|
|(what is this?)|
Piperacillin/tazobactam, sold under the brand names Tazocin among others, is a combination medication containing the antibiotic piperacillin and the β-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam. The combination has activity against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is used to treat pelvic inflammatory disease, intra-abdominal infection, pneumonia, cellulitis, and sepsis. It is given by injection into a vein.
Common adverse effects include headache, trouble sleeping, rash, nausea, constipation, and diarrhea. Serious adverse effects include Clostridium difficile infection and allergic reactions including anaphylaxis. Those who are allergic to other β-lactam are more likely to be allergic to piperacillin/tazobactam. However, those who are allergic to penicillin G are not more likely to be allergic to piperacillin. Use in pregnancy or breastfeeding appears to generally be safe. It usually results in bacterial death through blocking their ability to make a cell wall.
Piperacillin/tazobactam was approved for medical use in the United States in 1993. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world, as of 2015, is about US$11 per day. In the United Kingdom, as of 2015, this amount costs the NHS about 38.70 pounds per day.
Its main uses are in intensive care medicine (pneumonia, peritonitis), some diabetes-related foot infections, and empirical therapy in febrile neutropenia (e.g., after chemotherapy). The drug is administered intravenously every 6 or 8 hr, typically over 3–30 min. It may also be administered by continuous infusion over four hours. Prolonged infusions are thought to maximize the time that serum concentrations are above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the bacteria implicated in infection.
For β-lactam antipseudomonal antibiotics, including piperacillin/tazobactam, prolonged intravenous infusion is associated with lower mortality than bolus intravenous infusion in persons with sepsis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Society and culture
Apart from Tazocin and Zosyn, the drug is marketed in various countries under other trade names such as Tazact, Biopiper TZ, Brodactam, Piptaz, Maxitaz, Kilbac, Trezora, Du-Tazop, Tazopen, Sytaz, Tazin, and Inzalin TZ.
Various sources have referred to a shortage of the drug since May 2017, citing various reasons, including an earthquake in China and other issues at the major production facility in 海正 (Hisun); increased demand; withdrawal of funding by a major pharmaceutical company.
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