Monobactam

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Monobactam
Drug class

A monobactam is a type of antibiotic.[1] It is effective only against aerobic gram-negative bacteria; Neisseria and Pseudomonas.[2][3] Where there is penicillin allergy, the monobactam aztreonam may be used to treat serious infection such as meningitis, pneumonia, or sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria.[2]

Side effects include skin rash and occasional abnormal liver functions.[2] It is produced by bacteria.[1] The β-lactam ring is not fused to another ring, in contrast to most other β-lactams.[4] Monobactam antibiotics exhibit no IgE cross-reactivity reactions with penicillin but have shown some cross reactivity with cephalosporins, most notably ceftazidime, which contains an identical side chain as aztreonam.[5]

The term was coined in 1981 by Richard Sykes.[1] Aztreonam is the only monobactam antibiotic available in the US,[2] and the UK.[3]

Medical use

It is effective only against aerobic gram-negative bacteria; Neisseria and Pseudomonas.[2] Where there is penicillin allergy, the monobactam aztreonam may be used to treat serious infection such as meningitis, pneumonia, or sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria.[2]

Side effects

Side effects include skin rash and occasional abnormal liver functions.[2]

History

The term was coined in 1981 by Richard Sykes.[1][6] Aztreonam was the first monobactam, then a new group of monocyclic β-lactams produced by bacteria.[1][6]

Research

Other examples of monobactams are tigemonam,[7] nocardicin A,[8] and tabtoxin.[9]

Siderophore-conjugated monobactams show promise for the treatment of multi drug-resistant pathogens.[10]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Stromgaard, Kristian; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Madsen, Ulf (2009). Textbook of Drug Design and Discovery. CRC Press. p. 429. ISBN 978-1-4200-6322-6. Archived from the original on 2021-12-11. Retrieved 2021-11-22.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Beauduy, Camille E.; Winston, Lisa G. (2020). "43. Beta-lactam and other cell wall - & membrane - active antibiotics". In Katzung, Bertram G.; Trevor, Anthony J. (eds.). Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (15th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 834. ISBN 978-1-260-45231-0. Archived from the original on 2021-10-10. Retrieved 2021-11-23.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "5. Infection". British National Formulary (BNF) (82 ed.). London: BMJ Group and the Pharmaceutical Press. September 2021 – March 2022. pp. 579–580. ISBN 978-0-85711-413-6.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date format (link)
  4. Klaus R. Lindner; Daniel P. Bonner; William H. Koster (2000). "Monobactams". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/0471238961.1315141512091404.a01. ISBN 0471238961.
  5. Alldredge, Brian K.; Corelli, Robin L.; Ernst, Michael E. (February 2012). Applied therapeutics : the clinical use of drugs. Alldredge, Brian K.,, Revision of: Koda-Kimble, Mary Anne., Revision of: Young, Lloyd Y. (Tenth ed.). Philadelphia. ISBN 9781609137137. OCLC 759179443.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Greenwood, David (2008). "4. Wonder drugs". Antimicrobial Drugs: Chronicle of a Twentieth Century Medical Triumph. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-19-953484-5. Archived from the original on 2021-11-06. Retrieved 2021-11-22.
  7. Fuchs PC, Jones RN, Barry AL (March 1988). "In vitro antimicrobial activity of tigemonam, a new orally administered monobactam". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32 (3): 346–9. doi:10.1128/aac.32.3.346. PMC 172173. PMID 3259122.
  8. Bryan, L. (2012). Antimicrobial Drug Resistance. Elsevier. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-0-323-14495-7. Archived from the original on 2021-12-11. Retrieved 2021-11-23.
  9. "Tabtoxin". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 21 March 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  10. Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Carver, Peggy L. (2019). "Chapter 7. Building a Trojan Horse: Siderophore-Drug Conjugates for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases". In Sigel, Astrid; Freisinger, Eva; Sigel, Roland K. O.; Carver, Peggy L. (Guest editor) (eds.). Essential Metals in Medicine:Therapeutic Use and Toxicity of Metal Ions in the Clinic. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. Vol. 19. Berlin: de Gruyter GmbH. pp. 181–202. doi:10.1515/9783110527872-013. ISBN 978-3-11-052691-2. PMID 30855108. {{cite book}}: |editor4-first= has generic name (help)

External links