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Artemin Tertiary Structure.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesARTN, ENOVIN, EVN, NBN, artemin, ART
External IDsOMIM: 603886 MGI: 1333791 HomoloGene: 7631 GeneCards: ARTN
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 1: 43.93 – 43.94 MbChr 4: 117.78 – 117.79 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Artemin, also known as enovin or neublastin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARTN gene.[5][6]


Artemin is a neurotrophic factor in the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family of ligands which are a group of ligands within the TGF-beta superfamily of signaling molecules. GDNFs are unique in having neurotrophic properties and have potential use for gene therapy in neurodegenerative disease. Artemin has been shown in culture to support the survival of a number of peripheral neuron populations and at least one population of dopaminergic CNS neurons. Its role in the PNS and CNS is further substantiated by its expression pattern in the proximity of these neurons. This protein is a ligand for the RET receptor and uses GFR-alpha 3 as a coreceptor.[5]

Role in Axonal Development

Artemin, along with other GDNF family of ligands, has been implicated in the structural development and plasticity of several types of neurons, including ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.[7] Artemin promotes the survival of newly differentiated neurons after they have undergone terminal mitosis. Artemin has also been found to support the survival neurons in later stages of development and can enhance neuron growth better than neural growth factor during later stages of development.[8] Artemin plays an important role in migration, proliferation, and differentiation of sympathetic neurons during development. However, during target innervation, sympathetic neurons become dependent on neural growth factor for survival support.[9]

Unlike other secreted guidance cues during development, artemin acts solely as a chemoattractant and never acts as a chemorepellent.[10] Artemin is expressed in smooth muscle cells and secreted along blood vessels and in cells near sympathetic axonal projections so that the sympathetic axons can reach their target tissue cells. [10]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000117407 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000028539 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: artemin".
  6. ^ Baloh RH, Tansey MG, Lampe PA, Fahrner TJ, Enomoto H, Simburger KS, et al. (December 1998). "Artemin, a novel member of the GDNF ligand family, supports peripheral and central neurons and signals through the GFRalpha3-RET receptor complex". Neuron. 21 (6): 1291–302. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80649-2. PMID 9883723. S2CID 18633359.
  7. ^ Zihlmann KB, Ducray AD, Schaller B, Huber AW, Krebs SH, Andres RH, et al. (December 2005). "The GDNF family members neurturin, artemin and persephin promote the morphological differentiation of cultured ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons". Brain Research Bulletin. 68 (1–2): 42–53. doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2004.10.012. PMID 16325003. S2CID 31594656.
  8. ^ Andres R, Forgie A, Wyatt S, Chen Q, de Sauvage FJ, Davies AM (October 2001). "Multiple effects of artemin on sympathetic neurone generation, survival and growth". Development. 128 (19): 3685–95. doi:10.1242/dev.128.19.3685. PMID 11585795.
  9. ^ Airaksinen MS, Saarma M (May 2002). "The GDNF family: signalling, biological functions and therapeutic value". Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 3 (5): 383–94. doi:10.1038/nrn812. PMID 11988777. S2CID 2480120.
  10. ^ a b Honma Y, Araki T, Gianino S, Bruce A, Heuckeroth R, Johnson E, Milbrandt J (July 2002). "Artemin is a vascular-derived neurotropic factor for developing sympathetic neurons". Neuron. 35 (2): 267–82. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(02)00774-2. PMID 12160745. S2CID 8104679.

Further reading

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.