Prostaglandin E2 receptor
The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that bind and are activated by prostaglandin E2. They are members of the prostaglandin receptors class of receptors and include the following Protein isoforms:
- Prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1) - PTGER1
- Prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2) - PTGER2
- Prostaglandin E2 receptor 3 (EP3) - PTGER3
- Prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) - PTGER4
An antagonist of a prostaglandin E2 receptor has been shown to serve as an affective contraceptive for female macaques while unaffecting their menstrual cyclicity as well as hormonal patterns. The exact reason behind the reduced amount of successful pregnancies of primates during the study is unclear due a number of possibilities that may affect such result. Inhibition of the prostaglandin E2 EP4 receptor has been shown to inhibit tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis. 
- Peluffo, M.C.; Stanley, J.; Braeuer, N.; Rotgeri, A.; Fritzemeier, K.-H.; Fuhrmann, U.; Buchmann, B.; Adevai, T.; Murphy, M.J.; Zelinski, M.B.; Lindenthal, B.; Hennebold, J.D.; Stouffer, R.L. (July 2014). "A prostaglandin E2 receptor antagonist prevents pregnancies during a preclinical contraceptive trial with female macaques". Human Reproduction. 29 (7): 1400–1412. doi:10.1093/humrep/deu083. PMC 4059334.
- Majumder, Mousumi; Xin, Xiping; Liu, Ling; Girish, Gannareddy V.; Lala, Peeyush K. (September 2014). "Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 as the common target on cancer cells and macrophages to abolish angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, metastasis, and stem-like cell functions". Cancer Science. 105 (9): 1142–1151. doi:10.1111/cas.12475. PMC 4462388.
- Han, ShouWei; Roman, Jesse (February 2004). "Suppression of prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP2 by PPARγ ligands inhibits human lung carcinoma cell growth". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 314 (4): 1093–1099. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.01.007.