Prostaglandin D2 synthase

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Protein PTGDS PDB 2WWP.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesPTGDS, L-PGDS, LPGDS, PDS, PGD2, PGDS, PGDS2, prostaglandin D2 synthase
External IDsOMIM: 176803 MGI: 99261 HomoloGene: 737 GeneCards: PTGDS
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 9: 136.98 – 136.98 MbChr 2: 25.47 – 25.47 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase (PTGDS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGDS gene.[5][6]


The protein encoded by this gene is a glutathione-independent prostaglandin D synthase that catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). PGD2 functions as a neuromodulator as well as a trophic factor in the central nervous system. PGD2 is also involved in smooth muscle contraction/relaxation and is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. This gene is preferentially expressed in brain. Studies with transgenic mice over-expressing this gene suggest that this gene may be also involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep.[6] Furthermore, PTGDS and its product PGD2 are elevated in the bald-scalp areas of men with male pattern baldness (androgenetic alopecia).[7]

Clinical use

Prostaglandin D2 synthase is used clinically as a diagnostic marker for liquorrhea, that is, to check whether fluid leaking from the nose or ear contains cerebrospinal fluid.[8] This is important in the assessment of head trauma severity. In a medical context, the older term "beta-trace protein" is frequently used to refer to PTGDS.

See also


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000107317 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000015090 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ Nagata A, Suzuki Y, Igarashi M, Eguchi N, Toh H, Urade Y, Hayaishi O (May 1991). "Human brain prostaglandin D synthase has been evolutionarily differentiated from lipophilic-ligand carrier proteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 88 (9): 4020–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.9.4020. PMC 51585. PMID 1902577.
  6. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: PTGDS prostaglandin D2 synthase 21kDa (brain)".
  7. ^ Garza LA, Liu Y, Yang Z, Alagesan B, Lawson JA, Norberg SM, Loy DE, Zhao T, Blatt HB, Stanton DC, Carrasco L, Ahluwalia G, Fischer SM, FitzGerald GA, Cotsarelis G (Mar 2012). "Prostaglandin D2 inhibits hair growth and is elevated in bald scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia". Science Translational Medicine. 4 (126): 126ra34. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003122. PMC 3319975. PMID 22440736.
  8. ^ Bachmann G, Petereit H, Djenabi U, Michel O (Mar 2002). "Predictive values of beta-trace protein (prostaglandin D synthase) by use of laser-nephelometry assay for the identification of cerebrospinal fluid". Neurosurgery. 50 (3): 571–6, discussion 576–7. doi:10.1227/00006123-200203000-00027. PMID 11841726.

Further reading

External links

  • {{PDBe-KB2|P41222|Human Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase
  • {{PDBe-KB2|O09114|Mouse Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase