Salsalate

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Salsalate
Salsalate.svg
Names
Trade namesDisalcid, Salflex, other
Other namesSalicylsalicylic acid, sodium salicylate
  • 2-(2-Hydroxybenzoyl)oxybenzoic acid
Clinical data
Drug classNSAID (salicylate)[1]
Main usesInflammation[1]
Side effectsRinging in the ears, nausea, rash, Reye syndrome, stomach bleeding, kidney problems, anaphylaxis[1]
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Typical dose1 to 1.5 gram[1]
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
US NLMSalsalate
MedlinePlusa682880
Legal
Legal status
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC14H10O5
Molar mass258.229 g·mol−1

Salsalate, sold under the brand name Disalcid among others, is a medication used to treat inflammation in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis.[1] It is taken by mouth.[1]

Common side effects include ringing in the ears, nausea, and rash.[1] Other side effects may include Reye syndrome, stomach bleeding, kidney problems, liver problems, and anaphylaxis.[1] Use in the later part of pregnancy may harm the baby.[1] It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the salicylate type and blocks both COX-1 and COX-2.[1]

Salsalate was introduced in the 1960s.[2] It is available as a generic medication.[3] In the United States 60 tablets of 750 mg costs about 25 USD as of 2021.[3]

Medical uses

Salsalate may be used for inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis or noninflammatory disorders such as osteoarthritis.[4][5]

Dosage

The typical dose is 1,000 mg three time per day or 1,500 mg twice per day.[1]

Side effects

The risk of bleeding is a common concern with use of the NSAID class of medications. However, the bleeding risk associated with salsalate is lower than that associated with aspirin use.[6]

Mechanism of action

Relative to other NSAIDs, salsalate has a weak inhibitory effect on the cyclooxygenase enzyme and decreases the production of several proinflammatory chemical signals such as interleukin-6, TNF-alpha, and C-reactive protein.[4]

The mechanism through which salsalate is thought to reduce the production of these inflammatory chemical signals is through the inhibition of IκB kinase resulting in decreased action of NF-κB genes.[4][6][7] This mechanism is thought to be responsible for salsalate's insulin-sensitizing and blood sugar lowering properties.[6]

History

Salsalate had been suggested as possible treatment for diabetes as early as 1876.[4][8][9]

Society and culture

Names

Salsalate is the generic name of a prescription medication marketed under the brandnames Mono-Gesic, Salflex, Disalcid, and Salsitab. Other generic and brand name formulations may be available.[10]

Synthesis

Salsalate synthesis:[11][12] DE 211403  and DE 214044  (1909, both to Boehringer, Mann.), Frdl. 9, 928 and C.A. 4, 368 (1910).

Research

Salsalate has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes due to its ability to lower insulin resistance associated with inflammation and may be useful in prediabetes.[4] However, the use of salsalate to prevent the progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes mellitus has received limited study.[4]

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 "Salsalate Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 10 October 2021.
  2. Lane, Nancy E.; Wallace, Daniel Jeffrey (2002). All about Osteoarthritis: The Definitive Resource for Arthritis Patients and Their Families. Oxford University Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-19-513873-3. Archived from the original on 2021-10-11. Retrieved 2021-10-10.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Salsalate Prices, Coupons & Savings Tips - GoodRx". GoodRx. Archived from the original on 10 October 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2021.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Anderson K, Wherle L, Park M, Nelson K, Nguyen L (June 2014). "Salsalate, an old, inexpensive drug with potential new indications: a review of the evidence from 3 recent studies". American Health & Drug Benefits. 7 (4): 231–5. PMC 4105730. PMID 25126374.
  5. Hardie DG (July 2013). "AMPK: a target for drugs and natural products with effects on both diabetes and cancer". Diabetes. 62 (7): 2164–72. doi:10.2337/db13-0368. PMC 3712072. PMID 23801715.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Esser N, Paquot N, Scheen AJ (March 2015). "Anti-inflammatory agents to treat or prevent type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs (Review). 24 (3): 283–307. doi:10.1517/13543784.2015.974804. PMID 25345753.
  7. Ridker PM, Lüscher TF (July 2014). "Anti-inflammatory therapies for cardiovascular disease". European Heart Journal. 35 (27): 1782–91. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu203. PMC 4155455. PMID 24864079.
  8. Powell K (May 2007). "Obesity: the two faces of fat". Nature. 447 (7144): 525–7. Bibcode:2007Natur.447..525P. doi:10.1038/447525a. PMID 17538594.
  9. Ebstein W (1876). "Zur therapie des diabetes mellitus, insbesondere uber die anwendung des salicylsauren natron bei demselben". Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift. 13: 337–340.
  10. "drugs.com Salsalate entry". Archived from the original on 2020-12-05. Retrieved 2020-10-20.
  11. Cavallito CJ, Buck JS (1943). "Synthesis of Phenolic Acid Esters. I. Depsides1". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 65 (11): 2140. doi:10.1021/ja01251a034.
  12. Baker W, Ollis WD, Zealley TS (1951). "42. Eight- and higher-membered ring compounds. Part II. Di-, tri-, tetra-, and hexa-salicylides". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 201. doi:10.1039/JR9510000201.

External links

Identifiers: