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Abacavir and lamivudine.svg
Combination of
AbacavirNucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor
LamivudineNucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor
Trade namesKivexa, Epzicom, others
Clinical data
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
by mouth
Defined daily doseis not established[1]
External links
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • US: ℞-only

Abacavir/lamivudine, sold under the brand name Kivexa among others, is a fixed-dose combination medication used to treat HIV/AIDS.[2] It contains abacavir and lamivudine.[2] It is generally recommended for use with other antiretrovirals.[2] It is commonly used as part of the preferred treatment in children.[3] It is taken by mouth as a tablet.[2]

Common side effects include trouble sleeping, headache, depression, feeling tired, nausea, rash, and fever.[2] Serious side effects may include high blood lactate levels, allergic reactions, and enlargement of the liver.[2] It is not recommended in people with a specific gene known as HLA-B*5701.[2] Safety in pregnancy has not been well studied but it appears to be okay.[4] Lamivudine and abacavir are both nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI).[2]

Abacavir/lamivudine was approved for medical use in the United States in 2004.[2] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[5] Thewholesale cost in the developing world is about US$14.19 to $16.74 per month as of 2014.[6] As of 2015, the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is more than $200.[7]

Medical uses


The defined daily dose is not established[1]

Society and culture


It is marketed as Kivexa in most countries except for the United States, where it is branded as Epzicom.[8] It is marketed by ViiV Healthcare.

Legal challenges

Teva Pharmaceuticals and Lupin Ltd both filed abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) relating to the treatments of HIV using various combinations of abacavir, lamivudine and AZT, and challenging various patents. In 2013 the US District Court for the District of Delaware upheld the validity of a patent covering Epzicom and Tizivir. Other matters were subject to appeal or litigation as of 20 November 2014.[9]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 "WHOCC - ATC/DDD Index". www.whocc.no. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 "Abacavir and Lamivudine Tablets". Teva Pharmaceuticals USA. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  3. World Health Organization (2015). The selection and use of essential medicines. Twentieth report of the WHO Expert Committee 2015 (including 19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines and 5th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children). Geneva: World Health Organization. pp. 45–46. hdl:10665/189763. ISBN 9789241209946. ISSN 0512-3054. WHO technical report series;994.
  4. "Abacavir / lamivudine (Epzicom) Use During Pregnancy". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  5. World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  6. "Abacavir + Lamivudine". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  7. Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 59. ISBN 9781284057560.
  8. ViiV Healthcare: Kivexa Archived December 7, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  9. "PROPOSED MAJOR TRANSACTION WITH NOVARTIS AG:Circular to Shareholders and Notice of General Meeting" (PDF). Glaxosmithkline. 20 November 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-02-03. Retrieved 2015-02-03. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

External links