|Other names||Fostemsavir tromethamine, BMS-663068, GSK3684934|
|Drug class||HIV fusion inhibitor|
|Side effects||Nausea, diarrhea, rash, abdominal pain|
|Typical dose||600 mg BID|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||583.498 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Fostemsavir, sold under the brand name Rukobia, is a medication used to treat HIV/AIDS. It is used together with other medications, when usually treatments are not effective. It is taken by mouth.
Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, rash, and abdominal pain. Other side effects may include liver problems, QT prolongation, and immune reconstitution syndrome. It should not be taken with strong CYP3A inducers. It works by binding to the HIV virus and preventing it from entering T cells.
Fostemsavir was approved for medical use in the United States 2020, and Europe in 2021. In the United Kingdom a month of treatment costs the NHS £2,900 as of 2021. In the United States this amount costs about 8,000 USD.
Fostemsavir in combination with other antiretroviral(s), is indicated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in heavily treatment-experienced adults with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection failing their current antiretroviral regimen due to resistance, intolerance, or safety considerations.
It is taken at a dose of 600 mg twice per day.
Fostemsavir may cause a serious condition called immune reconstitution syndrome, similar to other approved drugs for treatment of HIV-1 infection. This condition can happen at the beginning of HIV-1 treatment when the immune system may get stronger and begin to fight infections that have been hidden in the body for a long time. Other serious side effects include heart rhythm problems due to prolongation of heart electrical activity (QT prolongation) and an increase of liver enzymes in patients with hepatitis B or C virus co-infection.
It was under development by ViiV Healthcare / GlaxoSmithKline for use in the treatment of HIV infection. By blocking the gp120 receptor of the virus, it prevents initial viral attachment to the host CD4+ T cell and entry into the host immune cell; its method of action is a first for HIV drugs. Because it targets a different step of the viral lifecycle, it offers promise for individuals with virus that has become highly resistant to other HIV drugs. Since gp120 is a highly conserved area of the virus, the drug is unlikely to promote resistance to itself. Investigators found that enfuvirtide-resistant and ibalizumab-resistant HIV envelopes remained susceptible to Fostemsavir. Conversely, Fostemsavir-resistant HIV remained susceptible to all the entry inhibitors. Furthermore, HIV isolates that do not require the CD4 receptor for cell entry were also susceptible to Fostemsavir, and the virus did not escape the attachment inhibitor by becoming CD4-independent. Prior in vitro studies showed that Fostemsavir inhibits both CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic HIV.
The safety and efficacy of fostemsavir, taken twice daily by mouth, were evaluated in a clinical trial of 371 heavily treatment-experienced adult participants who continued to have high levels of virus (HIV-RNA) in their blood despite being on antiretroviral drugs. Two hundred seventy-two participants were treated in the main trial arm, and an additional 99 participants received fostemsavir in a different arm of the trial. Most participants had been treated for HIV for more than 15 years (71 percent), had been exposed to five or more different HIV treatment regimens before entering the trial (85 percent) and/or had a history of AIDS (86 percent). Participants in the main cohort of the trial received either fostemsavir or a placebo twice daily for eight days, in addition to their failing antiretroviral regimen. On the eighth day, participants treated with fostemsavir had a significantly greater decrease in levels of HIV-RNA in their blood compared to those taking the placebo. After the eighth day, all participants received fostemsavir with other antiretroviral drugs. After 24 weeks of fostemsavir plus other antiretroviral drugs, 53 percent of participants achieved HIV RNA suppression, where levels of HIV were low enough to be considered undetectable. After 96 weeks, 60 percent of participants continued to have HIV RNA suppression. The clinical trial (NCT02362503) was conducted at 108 sites in 23 countries in North America, South America, Europe, Australia, Taiwan and South Africa.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for fostemsavir fast track, priority review, and breakthrough therapy designations. The FDA granted the approval of Rukobia to ViiV Healthcare.
On 10 December 2020, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for the medicinal product Rukobia, intended for the treatment of multi-drug resistant HIV-1 infection. The applicant for this medicinal product is ViiV Healthcare B.V. Fostemsavir was approved for medical use in the European Union in February 2021.
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