Vaccinia immune globulin

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Vaccinia immune globulin
Names
Trade namesCNJ-016
Clinical data
Drug classImmune globulin
Main usesComplications of smallpox vaccination, monkeypox[1]
Side effectsHeadache, dizziness, nausea[1]
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Typical dose6000 units/kg[1]
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph

Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) is a medication used to treat severe complications of smallpox vaccination and monkeypox.[1] With respect to complications, it is used for eczema vaccinatum, progressive vaccinia, severe generalized vaccinia, and vaccinia infections in those with certain skin conditions.[2] It is given by gradual injection into a vein.[1]

Common side effects include headache, dizziness, and nausea.[1] Severe side effects may include allergic reactions, kidney problems, blood clotting, and transfusion-related acute lung injury.[1] It is an immune globulin, specifically a gamma globulin, made from the blood of people immunized against smallpox.[1][3]

Vaccinia immune globulin was approved for medical use in the United States in 2005.[3] In the United States it is not commercially available though may be acquired from the Strategic National Stockpile.[1] In Canada it is available from Public Health Agency of Canada.[4]

Medical uses

Side effects from smallpox vaccine

For a small percentage of the population, the smallpox vaccine produces severe side effects. These include postvaccinial central nervous system disease, progressive vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum, accidental implantations, “generalized vaccinia,” and the common erythematous and/or urticarial rashes.[5][6][7]

It may be used for:[2]

It is not effective for smallpox itself or for encephalitis post vaccination.[4]

Monkeypox

It was also used along with cidofovir for the 2003 Midwest monkeypox outbreak as concomitant therapy.[8][9][10]

There; however, is no data on if it is effective.[11]

Dosage

It is generally given at a dose of 6000 units/kg.[1]

History

In the late 1940s, Dr. Henry Kempe suggested that the solution to the complications of the smallpox vaccine was to provide antibodies in the form of gamma globulin. [12][13] Kempe noted that for some infants, the smallpox vaccine failed to "take." Kempe believed this failure might be due to the high levels of maternal antibodies to vaccinia in the infants' blood. It appeared to Kempe, that the presence of the antibodies blocked viral replication and therefore a transfusion of antibodies from people who were immune due to vaccination, would help those in whom vaccination had failed. [14]

Society and culture

Manufacture

VIG is made from the pooled blood of individuals who have been inoculated with the smallpox vaccine. The antibodies these individuals developed in response to the smallpox vaccine are removed and purified.

See also

External links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 "Vaccinia Immune Globulin IV Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Research, Center for Biologics Evaluation and (12 April 2019). "Vaccinia Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human)". FDA. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "CNJ-016, Vaccinia Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human), sterile solution". Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Canada, Public Health Agency of (18 July 2007). "Canadian Immunization Guide: Part 5 - Passive Immunization". www.canada.ca. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  5. J.Michael Lane, MD, MPH,aJoel Goldstein, MD, FAAPaAdverse events occurring after smallpox vaccination. Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Volume 14, Issue 3, July 2003, Pages 189–195
  6. Frelinger JA, Garba ML. Responses to smallpox vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:689–90. DOI PubMed
  7. Moller-Larsen A, Haahr S. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in humans before and after revaccination with vaccinia virus. Infect Immun. 1978;19:34–9.PubMed • Cohen J. Smallpox vaccinations: how much protection remains? Science. 2001;294:985. DOI PubMed
  8. "CDC Smallpox | Investigational Vaccinia Immune Globulin (VIG) Information". Bt.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
  9. CDC. Recommendations for using smallpox vaccine in the pre-event vaccination program: Supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR 2003; 52 (RR07); 1-16.
  10. Dana A. Shea, Frank gottron, Holly Harvey. Monkeypox Technical Background and Outbreak Implications for Bioterrorism Preparedness. Congressional Research Service, Report for Congress.
  11. "Treatment | Monkeypox | Poxvirus | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 18 July 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  12. "Vaccinia immune globulin definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms". Medterms.com. 2012-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
  13. "CDC Smallpox | Medical Management of Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Adverse Reactions (Info for Clinicians and Public Health Professionals)". Bt.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
  14. Bray, M. Henry Kempe and the Birth of the Vaccinia Immune Globulin. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Volume 39. Issue 6. pp. 767-769.

External links