Hantavirus vaccine

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Hantavirus vaccine is a vaccine in development aimed to protect against Hantaan River virus.[1][2] An inactivated whole viral vaccine against the disease has been approved in China and South Korea but has limited evidence for its efficacy.[1]

Hantavirus vaccine aims to protect people against hantavirus infections causing hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The vaccine is considered important as acute hantavirus infections are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is estimated that about 1.5 million cases and 46,000 deaths occurred in China from 1950 to 2007. The number of cases is estimated at 32,000 in Finland from 2005 to 2010 and 90,000 in Russia from 1996 to 2006.[3]

The first hantavirus vaccine was developed in 1990 initially for use against Hantaan River virus which causes one of the most severe forms of HFRS.[4] It is estimated that about two million doses of rodent brain or cell-culture derived vaccine are given in China every year. The wide use of this vaccine may be partly responsible for a significant decrease in the number of HFRS cases in China to less than 20,000 by 2007.[3]

Other hantaviruses for which the vaccine is used include Seoul (SEOV) virus. However the vaccine is thought not to be effective against European hantaviruses including Puumala (PUUV) and Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV) viruses. The pharmaceutical trade name for the vaccine is Hantavax.[4][5] As of 2012 no hantavirus vaccine have been approved for use in Europe or USA.[3] A phase 2 study on a human HTNV/PUUV DNA hantavirus vaccine is ongoing.[6]

In addition to Hantavax three more vaccine candidates have been studied in I–II stage clinical trials. They include a recombinant vaccine and vaccines derived from HTNV and PUUV viruses. However, their prospects are unclear[3]


  1. 1.0 1.1 "The Next Pandemic: Hantavirus?". www.gavi.org. Archived from the original on 22 November 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  2. Liu, Rongrong; Ma, Hongwei; Shu, Jiayi; Zhang, Qiang; Han, Mingwei; Liu, Ziyu; Jin, Xia; Zhang, Fanglin; Wu, Xingan (30 January 2020). "Vaccines and Therapeutics Against Hantaviruses". Frontiers in Microbiology. 10: 2989. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.02989. ISSN 1664-302X. PMID 32082263. Archived from the original on 14 July 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Schmaljohn, C. S. (2012). "Vaccines for hantaviruses: Progress and issues". Expert Review of Vaccines. 11 (5): 511–513. doi:10.1586/ERV.12.15. PMID 22827236. S2CID 27574264. Archived from the original on 2017-09-24. Retrieved 2021-01-17.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Lee HW, Ahn CN, Song JW, Back LJ, Seo TJ, Park SC. Field trial of an inactivated vaccine against hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. Arch Virol. 1990;1(Suppl):35–47.
  5. Cho HW, Howard CR. Antibody responses in humans to an inactivated hantavirus vaccine (Hantavax). Vaccine. 1999;17:2569–75.
  6. "Phase 2a Immunogenicity Study of Hantaan/Puumala Virus DNA Vaccine for Prevention of Hemorrhagic Fever". ClinicalTrials.gov. 2014-04-14. Archived from the original on 2015-12-23. Retrieved 2015-12-22.