Osteoma

From WikiProjectMed
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Osteoma
Other names: Benign osteogenic tumors, unspecified and osteoma NOS.[1] Not recommended: ivory exostosis, parosteal osteoma, torus palatines/mandibularis[1]
Ostéome.jpg
Osteoma of external auditory meatus
SpecialtyOrthopedics
SymptomsNone, pain, headache[1]
Complicationspressure symptoms[1]
Usual onsetslow[1]
Causesunknown[1]
Diagnostic methodMedical imaging: X-ray, CT scan, MRI[1]
TreatmentNone, surgery[1]
FrequencyM=F[1]

Osteoma (plural: "osteomata" or "osteomas"), is a non-cancerous osteogenic bone tumor, a new piece of bone usually growing on another piece of bone, typically on the skull.[1][2] An osteoma grows slowly so may give no symptoms or pain, headache, blocked paranasal sinuses or local swelling.[1] It may present with sinusitis.[3]

The cause is unknown.[1] Osteomas are also found in Gardner's syndrome.[1]

Medical imaging such as X-ray, CT scan and MRI show dense, clearly defined, round white tumors attached to bone.[1] They can be left alone if not troubling, and surgically cut out if pressure symptoms.[1] The surgery may be possible through the nose, without making a large cut.[3]

It affects males and females equally.[1] The true prevalence is not known but some reports quote up to 6.4%.[1][clarification needed] Findings of osteomata date back to ancient Egypt (664-332 BCE).[1]

Signs and symptoms

There may be no symptoms or blocked paranasal sinuses or local swelling.[1] An affected person might therefore present with an infection of the sinuses, headaches or facial pain.[3]

Often, craniofacial osteoma presents itself through ocular signs and symptoms (such as proptosis).[4]

Cause

The cause of osteomas is uncertain, but commonly accepted theories propose congenital, traumatic, or infectious causes.[3] Osteomas are also found in Gardner's syndrome.[1]

Diagnosis

Medical imaging such as X-ray, CT scan and MRI show dense, clearly defined, round white tumors attached to bone.[1] They may be diagnosed when having medical imaging for another reason.[3] Osteomas of the paranasal sinuses and skull base can be diagnosed using CT-scan without intravenous contrast, allowing its size and relation to nearby important structures to be assessed.[3] A biopsy is not usually required.[3]

Treatment

They can be left alone if not troubling, and surgically cut out if pressure symptoms.[1]

Epidemiology

It most frequently affects the skull and affect males and females equally.[1] The true prevalence is not known but some reports quote up to 6.4%.[1]

Osteoma represents the most common non-cancerous tumor of the nose and paranasal sinuses.[3]

History

Findings of osteomata date back to ancient Egypt (664-332 BCE).[1]

Variants

See also

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 WHO Classification of Tumours Editorial Board, ed. (2020). "Bone tumors". Soft Tissue and Bone Tumours: WHO Classification of Tumours. 3 (5th ed.). Lyon (France): International Agency for Research on Cancer. p. 391-393. ISBN 978-92-832-4503-2.
  2. "ICD-11 - ICD-11 for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". icd.who.int. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 "Osteoma". Stanford Medicine: Skull Base Surgery (in Gagana Samoa). Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  4. Michael S. Schwartz, MD; Dennis M. Crockett, MD. "Management of a Large Frontoethmoid Osteoma with Sinus Cranialization and Cranial Bone Graft Reconstruction". International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology.

External links

  • Humapth #4724 (Pathology images)
Classification