MVA-BN smallpox vaccine

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MVA-BN smallpox vaccine
Vaccine description
TypeAttenuated virus
Names
Trade namesImvanex, Imvamune, Jynneos
Other namesLive modified Vaccinia virus Ankara,[1] modified vaccinia Ankara - Bavarian Nordic smallpox vaccine[2]
Clinical data
Main usesSmallpox, monkeypox[1]
Side effectsPain at injection site, muscle pain, headache, tiredness, nausea[3]
Routes of
use
Subcutaneous injection
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
US NLMMVA-BN smallpox vaccine
Legal
Legal status

MVA-BN smallpox vaccine is a smallpox vaccine used to prevent smallpox, monkeypox, and vaccinia.[1][2] It is recommended in people at high risk of these disease, including after exposure.[4][5] It was previously estimated to be more than 85% effective against monkeypox.[4] It is given by injection under the skin as two doses 4-weeks apart.[4]

Side effects are generally mild.[1] Commonly these include pain at the site of injection, muscle pain, headache, tiredness, and nausea.[3] Other side effects may include anaphylaxis.[3] For people with eczema or a weakened immune system, MVA-BN is safer then ACAM2000.[6] There is no evidence of harm in pregnancy, though such use has not been well studied.[7] It is a live vaccine, using the vaccinia virus, but a version that cannot duplicate itself.[3]

MVA-BN was approved for medical use in Canada and Europe in 2013, and the United States in 2019.[6] It is sold under the brands Jynneos, Imvamune, and Imvanex.[2] As of 2022 there are about 16 million doses available globally, with the United States to get 14 million.[8][9] In the 2000s it cost government about 29 USD a dose.[10] Bavarian Nordic owns the patent; though received 2 billion USD from the United States government to support its development.[9]

Medical uses

MVA-BN smallpox vaccine is used protects against smallpox and monkeypox.[4] How long it lasts is unclear.[1]

In 2021, its use was recommended in high risk occupations in the US.[5] In the same year the vaccine was provided for health workers in the UK following an outbreak of monkeypox there.[5]

In the United States and Canada it is approved for people 18 years and old.[3][11] Use in children would be off-label.[11]

Dosage

It has typically been given by injection under the skin as two doses 4-weeks apart.[4] In August of 2022 the FDA approved giving one fifth the usual dose intradermal.[12]

Side effects

For people with atopic eczema or weakened immune systems, MVA-BN has been shown to be safer then ACAM2000.[6]

History

Decade-in-which-smallpox-ceased-to-be-endemic-by-country.png

The previous smallpox vaccines, Dryvax, is now no longer produced.[6] It was replaced by ACAM2000.[6] MVA-BN was first approved in Canada and Europe in 2013, and the United States in 2019.[6]

Society and culture

Licensing

In the United States, MVA-BN is marketed as Jynneos.[4] It is marketed as Imvamune in Canada, and in Europe as Imvanex.[13] In 2020 in Canada, it was licensed for use to prevent smallpox, monkeypox and other related orthopoxvirus infections.[5]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 "Imvanex EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). Archived from the original on 27 April 2022. Retrieved 2014-10-02.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "MVA-BN smallpox vaccine". www.cancer.gov. 2 February 2011. Archived from the original on 14 October 2020. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine Live Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 "Monkeypox and Smallpox Vaccine Guidance | Monkeypox | Poxvirus". www.cdc.gov. 29 November 2019. Archived from the original on 19 May 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Meeting proceedings". WHO Advisory Committee on Variola Virus Research: report of the twenty-third meeting, virtual meeting, 3-4 November 2021. World Health Organization. 2022. pp. 14–18. ISBN 978-92-4-004674-0. Archived from the original on 20 May 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Saleh, Amr; Qamar, Shahraz; Tekin, Aysun; Singh, Romil; Kashyap, Rahul (July 2021). "Vaccine Development Throughout History". Cureus. 13 (7): e16635. doi:10.7759/cureus.16635. ISSN 2168-8184. PMID 34462676. Archived from the original on 2022-05-21. Retrieved 2022-05-21.
  7. "Smallpox and monkeypox vaccine (Jynneos) Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  8. "Monkeypox". www.who.int. World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Exclusive: Closure Of World's Only Manufacturing Plant For Monkeypox Vaccine Raises Questions About World's Ability To Meet Rising Demand - Health Policy Watch". 31 July 2022. Archived from the original on 7 August 2022. Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  10. Lambert de Rouvroit, Axel; Heegaard, Erik D. (January 2016). "Total costs associated with replicating and non-replicating smallpox vaccines". Global Security: Health, Science and Policy. 1 (1): 3–9. doi:10.1080/23793406.2016.1171944.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "NACI Rapid Response - Interim guidance on the use of Imvamune® in the context of monkeypox outbreaks in Canada" (PDF). p. 13. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 June 2022. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  12. Commissioner, Office of the (10 August 2022). "Monkeypox Update: FDA Authorizes Emergency Use of JYNNEOS Vaccine to Increase Vaccine Supply". FDA. Archived from the original on 11 August 2022. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  13. "MVA-BN smallpox vaccine | Bavarian Nordic". www.bavarian-nordic.com. Archived from the original on 22 April 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2022.

External links

Identifiers: