Pyridoxine

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Pyridoxine
Pyridoxine structure ver2.svg
Pyridoxine ball-and-stick.png
Pyridoxine
Names
Other namesvitamin B6,[1] pyridoxol[2] pyridoxine hydrochloride
Clinical data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: Exempt[3]
  • US: A (No risk in human studies)[3]
Routes of
use
By mouth, intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous
Defined daily dose160 mg (by mouth)
160 mg (parenteral)[4]
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
Legal
License data
Legal status
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC8H11NO3
Molar mass169.180 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point159 to 162 °C (318 to 324 °F)

Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.[1] As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, certain metabolic disorders, side effects or complications of isoniazid use, and certain types of mushroom poisoning.[6][1] It is used by mouth or by injection.[6]

It is usually well tolerated.[6] Occasionally side effects include headache, numbness, and sleepiness.[6] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[6] Pyridoxine is in the vitamin B family of vitamins.[6] It is required by the body to make amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.[6] Sources in the diet include fruit, vegetables, and grain.[7]

Pyridoxine was discovered in 1934, isolated in 1938, and first made in 1939.[8][9] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[10] Pyridoxine is available both as a generic medication and over the counter product.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.59–3.54 per month.[11] Foods, such as breakfast cereal have pyridoxine added in some countries.[7]

Medical uses

As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, certain metabolic disorders, problems from isoniazid, and certain types of mushroom poisoning.[6][1] Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a type of rare epilepsy that does not improve with typical antiseizure medications.[12] Pyridoxine is used by mouth or by injection.[6]

Pyridoxine in combination with doxylamine is used as a treatment for morning sickness in pregnant women. It has been used in hydrazine exposure with unclear effect.[13]

Dosage

The defined daily dose is 160 mg (by mouth) or 160 mg (parenteral)[4] To prevent toxicity due to isoniazid 10 mg is used in people over 5 kg while 5 mg is used in people under 5 kg.[14] To treat toxicity from isoniazid 50 mg three times per day is used in adults and 50 mg once per day in children.[14]

Side effects

It is usually well tolerated, though overdose toxicity is possible.[6] Occasionally side effects include headache, numbness, and sleepiness.[6] Pyridoxine overdose can cause a peripheral sensory neuropathy characterized by poor coordination, numbness, and decreased sensation to touch, temperature, and vibration.[15] Healthy human blood levels of pyridoxine are 2.1 - 21.7 ng/mL.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

Normal doses are safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[6]

Mechanism

Pyridoxine is in the vitamin B family of vitamins.[6] It is required by the body to make amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.[6] Sources in the diet include fruit, vegetables, and grain.[7] It is also required for muscle phosphorylase activity associated with glycogen metabolism.

History and culture

Pyridoxine was discovered in 1934, isolated in 1938, and first made in 1939.[8][9] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[10] Pyridoxine is available as a generic medication and over the counter.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.59–3.54 per month.[11] Foods, such as breakfast cereal have pyridoxine added in some countries.[7]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. p. 496. hdl:10665/44053. ISBN 9789241547659.
  2. Dryhurst, Glenn (2012). Electrochemistry of Biological Molecules. Elsevier. p. 562. ISBN 9780323144520. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Pyridoxine Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 27 April 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "WHOCC - ATC/DDD Index". www.whocc.no. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  5. "Pyridoxine 50mg Tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)". (emc). 27 April 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 "Pyridoxine Hydrochloride". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "Office of Dietary Supplements - Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B6". ods.od.nih.gov. 11 February 2016. Archived from the original on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Squires, Victor R. (2011). The Role of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Human Nutrition - Volume IV. EOLSS Publications. p. 121. ISBN 9781848261952.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Harris, Harry (2012). Advances in Human Genetics 6. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 39. ISBN 9781461582649.
  10. 10.0 10.1 World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Vitamin B6". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  12. Abend, NS; Loddenkemper, T (July 2014). "Management of pediatric status epilepticus". Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 16 (7): 301. doi:10.1007/s11940-014-0301-x. PMC 4110742. PMID 24909106.
  13. "Hydrazine (EHC 68, 1987)". www.inchem.org. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  14. 14.0 14.1 "PYRIDOXINE = VITAMIN B6 oral - Essential drugs". medicalguidelines.msf.org. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  15. "Pyridoxine deficiency and toxicity | MedLink Neurology". www.medlink.com. Retrieved 24 August 2020.

External links


External sites:
Identifiers:

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