Pyridoxine

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Pyridoxine
Pyridoxine structure ver2.svg
Pyridoxine ball-and-stick.png
Pyridoxine
Names
Other namesvitamin B6,[1] pyridoxol[2] pyridoxine hydrochloride
  • 4,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridin-3-ol
Clinical data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: Exempt[3]
  • US: A (No risk in human studies)[3]
Routes of
use
By mouth, intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous
Defined daily dose160 mg (by mouth)
160 mg (parenteral)[4]
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
Legal
License data
Legal status
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC8H11NO3
Molar mass169.180 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point159 to 162 °C (318 to 324 °F)
  • OCc1cnc(C)c(O)c1CO
  • InChI=1S/C8H11NO3/c1-5-8(12)7(4-11)6(3-10)2-9-5/h2,10-12H,3-4H2,1H3 checkY
  • Key:LXNHXLLTXMVWPM-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement.[1] As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, certain metabolic disorders, side effects or complications of isoniazid use, and certain types of mushroom poisoning.[6][1] It is used by mouth or by injection.[6]

It is usually well tolerated.[6] Occasionally side effects include headache, numbness, and sleepiness.[6] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[6] Pyridoxine is in the vitamin B family of vitamins.[6] It is required by the body to make amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.[6] Sources in the diet include fruit, vegetables, and grain.[7]

Pyridoxine was discovered in 1934, isolated in 1938, and first made in 1939.[8][9] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[10] Pyridoxine is available both as a generic medication and over the counter product.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.59–3.54 per month.[11] Foods, such as breakfast cereal have pyridoxine added in some countries.[7]

Medical uses

As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent pyridoxine deficiency, sideroblastic anaemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, certain metabolic disorders, problems from isoniazid, and certain types of mushroom poisoning.[6][1] Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a type of rare epilepsy that does not improve with typical antiseizure medications.[12] Pyridoxine is used by mouth or by injection.[6]

Pyridoxine in combination with doxylamine is used as a treatment for morning sickness in pregnant women. It has been used in hydrazine exposure with unclear effect.[13]

Dosage

The defined daily dose is 160 mg (by mouth) or 160 mg (by injection)[4] To prevent toxicity due to isoniazid 10 mg is used in people over 5 kg while 5 mg is used in people under 5 kg.[14] To treat toxicity from isoniazid 50 mg three times per day is used in adults and 50 mg once per day in children.[14]

Side effects

It is usually well tolerated, though overdose toxicity is possible.[6] Occasionally side effects include headache, numbness, and sleepiness.[6] Pyridoxine overdose can cause a peripheral sensory neuropathy characterized by poor coordination, numbness, and decreased sensation to touch, temperature, and vibration.[15] Healthy human blood levels of pyridoxine are 2.1 - 21.7 ng/mL.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

Normal doses are safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[6]

Mechanism

Pyridoxine is in the vitamin B family of vitamins.[6] It is required by the body to make amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.[6] Sources in the diet include fruit, vegetables, and grain.[7] It is also required for muscle phosphorylase activity associated with glycogen metabolism.

History

Pyridoxine was discovered in 1934, isolated in 1938, and first made in 1939.[8][9] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[10] Pyridoxine is available as a generic medication and over the counter.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.59–3.54 per month.[11] Foods, such as breakfast cereal have pyridoxine added in some countries.[7]

Society and culture

Cost

The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.59–3.54 per month[11]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. p. 496. hdl:10665/44053. ISBN 9789241547659.
  2. Dryhurst, Glenn (2012). Electrochemistry of Biological Molecules. Elsevier. p. 562. ISBN 9780323144520. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Pyridoxine Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 27 April 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "WHOCC - ATC/DDD Index". www.whocc.no. Retrieved 15 September 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. "Pyridoxine 50mg Tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)". (emc). 27 April 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 "Pyridoxine Hydrochloride". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "Office of Dietary Supplements - Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B6". ods.od.nih.gov. 11 February 2016. Archived from the original on 12 December 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. 8.0 8.1 Squires, Victor R. (2011). The Role of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Human Nutrition - Volume IV. EOLSS Publications. p. 121. ISBN 9781848261952.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Harris, Harry (2012). Advances in Human Genetics 6. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 39. ISBN 9781461582649.
  10. 10.0 10.1 World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Vitamin B6". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  12. Abend, NS; Loddenkemper, T (July 2014). "Management of pediatric status epilepticus". Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 16 (7): 301. doi:10.1007/s11940-014-0301-x. PMC 4110742. PMID 24909106.
  13. "Hydrazine (EHC 68, 1987)". www.inchem.org. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  14. 14.0 14.1 "PYRIDOXINE = VITAMIN B6 oral - Essential drugs". medicalguidelines.msf.org. Retrieved 24 August 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  15. "Pyridoxine deficiency and toxicity | MedLink Neurology". www.medlink.com. Retrieved 24 August 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

External links

External sites:
Identifiers:

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