Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland. There are two main types acute and chronic. Acute prostatitis is sudden in onset, results in significant pain, and is less common. Chronic prostatitis lasts for at least three months, symptoms come and go, and it is more common. Complications of acute disease may include urinary retention or a prostate abscess. Chronic disease may result in recurrent urinary tract infections.
The cause of acute disease is generally a bacterial infection, while the cause of chronic disease is often less clear. Chronic disease may be divided into chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Another category is known as asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis (AIP). Diagnosis may involve examination, urine analysis, medical imaging, PSA testing, and semen testing.
Treatment depends on the type. Acute prostatitis is generally treated with antibiotics while chronic disease may be treated with alpha blockers and NSAIDs in addition to antibiotics. Rarely surgery is required. Asymptomatic prostatitis may not require treatment.
Prostatitis affects about half of males at some point in time. It represents the reason for about a quarter of urology visits related to urinary symptoms. Prostatitis most commonly occurs in a persons 30s or 40s. Prostatitis was first described by Verdies in 1838 and early treatments included leeches and prostatic message.
In 1999, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) devised a new classification system. For more specifics about each type of prostatitis, including information on symptoms, treatment, and prognosis, follow the links to the relevant full articles.
|Category||Current name||Old name||Pain||Bacteria||WBCs||Description|
|I||Acute bacterial prostatitis||Acute bacterial prostatitis||Yes||Yes||Yes||Bacterial infection of the prostate gland that requires urgent medical treatment.|
|II||Chronic bacterial prostatitis||Chronic bacterial prostatitis||±||Yes||Yes||A relatively rare condition that usually presents as intermittent urinary tract infections.|
|IIIa||Inflammatory CP/CPPS||Nonbacterial prostatitis||Yes||No||Yes||Accounts for 90–95% of prostatitis diagnoses, formerly known as chronic nonbacterial prostatitis.|
|IV||Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis||(none)||No||No||Yes||No history of genitourinary pain complaints, but leukocytosis is noted, usually during evaluation for other conditions. Between 6 and 19% of men have pus cells in their semen but no symptoms.|
In 1968, Meares and Stamey determined a classification technique based upon the culturing of bacteria. This classification is no longer used.
The conditions are distinguished by the different presentation of pain, white blood cells (WBCs) in the urine, duration of symptoms and bacteria cultured from the urine. To help express prostatic secretions that may contain WBCs and bacteria, prostate massage is sometimes used.
- Interstitial cystitis — a related disease
- Granulomatous prostatitis
- IgG4-related prostatitis
- Male accessory gland infection (MAGI)
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