Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel

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Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel
Combination of
EthinylestradiolEstrogen
LevonorgestrelProgestogen
Names
Trade namesAltavera, Alysena, Amethyst, others[1]
Clinical data
Main usesBirth control[2]
Pregnancy
category
  • US: X (Contraindicated)
Routes of
use
By mouth
Defined daily dosenot established[3]
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa601050
Legal
Legal status

Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel (EE/LNG), also known as ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel, is a combined birth control pill made up of ethinylestradiol, an estrogen and levonorgestrel a progestin.[4] It is used for birth control, symptoms of menstruation, endometriosis, and as emergency contraception.[1][4] It is taken by mouth.[1]

Side effects can include nausea, headache, blood clots, breast pain, depression, and liver problems.[4] Use is not recommended during pregnancy, the initial three weeks after childbirth, and in those at high risk of blood clots.[4] However, it may be started immediately after a miscarriage or abortion.[5] Smoking while using combined birth control pills is not recommended.[1] It works by stopping ovulation, making the mucus at the opening to the cervix thick, and making the uterus not suitable for implantation.[1]

Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel has been approved for medical use in the United States at least since 1982.[1] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[6] It is available as a generic medication.[7] In the United Kingdom three months of medication costs the NHS about 1.80 pounds.[8] In the United States it costs about $25–50 per month.[7] It is marketed under a large number of brand names.[1] In 2017, it was the 136th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than four million prescriptions.[9][10]

Medical uses

It is used as a form of birth control.[2]

Dosage

The defined daily dose is not established.[3] It is taken as 21 active pills of 30 micrograms ethinylestradiol / 150 micrograms levonorgestrel and 7 inactive pills.[2]

Side effects

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

It should not be used in the initial 6 weeks following delivery and is not recommended between 6 weeks and 6 months unless their is no other suitable option.[2]

Society and culture

Cost

In the United Kingdom three months of medication costs the NHS about 1.80 pounds.[8] In the United States it costs about $25–50 per month.[7] It is marketed under a large number of brand names.[1] In 2017, it was the 136th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than four million prescriptions.[9][10]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 "Ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel medical facts from Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "ETHINYLESTRADIOL/LEVONORGESTREL oral - Essential drugs". medicalguidelines.msf.org. Retrieved 30 August 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. 3.0 3.1 "WHOCC - ATC/DDD Index". www.whocc.no. Retrieved 15 September 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. pp. 363–5. hdl:10665/44053. ISBN 9789241547659.
  5. "Erlibelle 30micrograms/150micrograms film-coated tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - (eMC)". www.medicines.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 349. ISBN 9781284057560.
  8. 8.0 8.1 British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. p. 552. ISBN 9780857111562.
  9. 9.0 9.1 "The Top 300 of 2020". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020.

External links

Identifiers: