Bruton's tyrosine kinase

From WikiProjectMed
Jump to navigation Jump to search
1bwn opm.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesBTK, AGMX1, AT, ATK, BPK, IMD1, PSCTK1, XLA, Bruton tyrosine kinase, IGHD3
External IDsOMIM: 300300 MGI: 88216 HomoloGene: 30953 GeneCards: BTK
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr X: 101.35 – 101.39 MbChr X: 133.44 – 133.48 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (abbreviated Btk or BTK), also known as tyrosine-protein kinase BTK, is a tyrosine kinase that is encoded by the BTK gene in humans. BTK plays a crucial role in B cell development.


BTK contains five different protein interaction domains. These domains include an amino terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, a proline-rich TEC homology (TH) domain, SRC homology (SH) domains SH2 and SH3, as well as a kinase domain with enzymatic activity.[5]

Structure of BTK.svg


BTK plays a crucial role in B cell development as it is required for transmitting signals from the pre-B cell receptor that forms after successful immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement.[6] It also has a role in mast cell activation through the high-affinity IgE receptor.[7]

Btk contains a PH domain that binds phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 binding induces Btk to phosphorylate phospholipase C, which in turn hydrolyzes PIP2, a phosphatidylinositol, into two second messengers, inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), which then go on to modulate the activity of downstream proteins during B-cell signalling.[citation needed]

Involvement of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase in B cell receptor signalling.svg

Clinical significance

Mutations in the BTK gene are implicated in the primary immunodeficiency disease X-linked agammaglobulinemia (Bruton's agammaglobulinemia); sometimes abbreviated to XLA and selective IgM deficiency.[8] Patients with XLA have normal pre-B cell populations in their bone marrow but these cells fail to mature and enter the circulation. The Btk gene is located on the X chromosome (Xq21.3-q22).[9] At least 400 mutations of the BTK gene have been identified. Of these, at least 212 are considered to be disease-causing mutations.[10]

BTK inhibitors

Approved drugs that inhibit BTK:

Various drugs that inhibit BTK are in clinical trials:[15]


Bruton's tyrosine kinase was discovered in 1993 and is named for Ogden Bruton, who first described XLA in 1952.[9]


Bruton's tyrosine kinase has been shown to interact with:

See also


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000010671 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000031264 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ Pal Singh S, Dammeijer F, Hendriks RW (February 2018). "Role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase in B cells and malignancies". Molecular Cancer. 17 (1): 57. doi:10.1186/s12943-018-0779-z. PMC 5817726. PMID 29455639.
  6. ^ Owen, Judith A.; Punt, Jenni; Stranford, Sharon A.; Jones, Patricia P. (2013). Kuby Immunology (7th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman. p. 93. ISBN 978-14641-3784-6.
  7. ^ Turner, Helen; Kinet, Jean-Pierre (November 1999). "Signalling through the high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI". Nature. 402 (S6760): 24–30. doi:10.1038/35037021. PMID 10586892.
  8. ^ Christoph, Geier (18 August 2018). "Hypomorphic Mutations in the BCR Signalosome Lead to Selective Immunoglobulin M Deficiency and Impaired B-cell Homeostasis". Frontiers in Immunology. 9: 2984. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2018.02984. PMC 6305442. PMID 30619340.
  9. ^ a b X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia Patient and Family Handbook for The Primary Immune Diseases. Third Edition. 2001. Published by the Immune Deficiency Foundation.
  10. ^ Šimčíková D, Heneberg P (December 2019). "Refinement of evolutionary medicine predictions based on clinical evidence for the manifestations of Mendelian diseases". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 18577. Bibcode:2019NatSR...918577S. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-54976-4. PMC 6901466. PMID 31819097.
  11. ^ "FDA approves new treatment for adults with mantle cell lymphoma". Food and Drug Administration. 24 March 2020.
  12. ^ "FDA approves therapy to treat patients with relapsed and refractory mantle cell lymphoma supported by clinical trial results showing high response rate of tumor shrinkage". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 14 November 2019. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  13. ^ BeiGene Announces Initiation of a Combination Trial of the BTK Inhibitor BGB-3111 with the PD-1 Antibody BGB-A317. June 2016
  14. ^ Dhillon, Sohita (2020). "Tirabrutinib: First Approval". Drugs. 80 (8): 835–840. doi:10.1007/s40265-020-01318-8. PMID 32382949. S2CID 218531327.
  15. ^ Astra Signals A Late Run On BTK Inhibition. Dec 2015
  16. ^ Montalban X, Arnold DL, Weber MS, et al. (June 2019). "Placebo-Controlled Trial of an Oral BTK Inhibitor in Multiple Sclerosis". N. Engl. J. Med. 380 (25): 2406–2417. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1901981. PMID 31075187.
  17. ^ "A Study of Efficacy and Safety of M2951 in Subjects With Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis". 29 November 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  18. ^ EMD Serono Research & Development Institute, Inc. (2021-07-13). "A Phase III, Multicenter, Randomized, Parallel Group, Double Blind, Double Dummy, Active Controlled Study of Evobrutinib Compared With an Interferon Beta 1a (Avonex®), in Participants With RMS to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety". Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ Dolgin, Elie (January 2021). "BTK blockers make headway in multiple sclerosis". Nature Biotechnology. 39 (1): 3–5. doi:10.1038/s41587-020-00790-7. ISSN 1087-0156. PMID 33432223.
  20. ^ National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) (2021-04-23). "A Phase 2 Clinical Trial of Tolebrutinib, a Brain-penetrant Bruton s Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, for the Modulation of Chronically Inflamed White Matter Lesions in Multiple Sclerosis". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. ^ Remibrutinib for Multiple Sclerosis
  22. ^ "A Study to Investigate the Safety and Efficacy of ABBV-105 and Upadacitinib Given Alone or in Combination in Participants With Moderately to Severely Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - Full Text View -". Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  23. ^ "Genentech: Our Pipeline". Retrieved 2020-10-10.
  24. ^ Mato AR, Shah NN, Jurczak W, et al. (March 2021). "Pirtobrutinib in relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies (BRUIN): a phase 1/2 study". The Lancet. 397 (10277): 892–901. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00224-5. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 33676628.
  25. ^ Clinical trial number NCT01659255 for "ONO-4059 Phase I Dose-escalation Study to Investigate the Safety and Tolerability of ONO-4059 Given as Monotherapy in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and/or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemi" at
  26. ^ "Novel BTK, PI3K Inhibitors on Horizon for Relapsed CLL. March 2016". Archived from the original on 2016-04-05. Retrieved 2016-03-22.
  27. ^ Clinical trial number NCT01351935 for "Escalating Dose Study in Subjects With Relapsed or Refractory B Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, and Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia" at
  28. ^ Garde, Damian (March 19, 2015). "Lilly inks a $690M deal to get its hands on an autoimmune drug". FierceBiotech.
  29. ^ Nixon JC, Rajaiya JB, Ayers N, Evetts S, Webb CF (March 2004). "The transcription factor, Bright, is not expressed in all human B lymphocyte subpopulations". Cell. Immunol. 228 (1): 42–53. doi:10.1016/j.cellimm.2004.03.004. PMID 15203319.
  30. ^ a b Yasuda T, Tezuka T, Maeda A, Inazu T, Yamanashi Y, Gu H, Kurosaki T, Yamamoto T (July 2002). "Cbl-b positively regulates Btk-mediated activation of phospholipase C-gamma2 in B cells". J. Exp. Med. 196 (1): 51–63. doi:10.1084/jem.20020068. PMC 2194016. PMID 12093870.
  31. ^ Hashimoto S, Iwamatsu A, Ishiai M, Okawa K, Yamadori T, Matsushita M, Baba Y, Kishimoto T, Kurosaki T, Tsukada S (October 1999). "Identification of the SH2 domain binding protein of Bruton's tyrosine kinase as BLNK--functional significance of Btk-SH2 domain in B-cell antigen receptor-coupled calcium signaling". Blood. 94 (7): 2357–64. doi:10.1182/blood.V94.7.2357.419k40_2357_2364. PMID 10498607. S2CID 21014231.
  32. ^ Vargas L, Nore BF, Berglof A, Heinonen JE, Mattsson PT, Smith CI, Mohamed AJ (March 2002). "Functional interaction of caveolin-1 with Bruton's tyrosine kinase and Bmx". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (11): 9351–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108537200. PMID 11751885.
  33. ^ Ma YC, Huang XY (October 1998). "Identification of the binding site for Gqalpha on its effector Bruton's tyrosine kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (21): 12197–201. Bibcode:1998PNAS...9512197M. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.21.12197. PMC 22808. PMID 9770463.
  34. ^ Sacristán C, Tussié-Luna MI, Logan SM, Roy AL (February 2004). "Mechanism of Bruton's tyrosine kinase-mediated recruitment and regulation of TFII-I". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (8): 7147–58. doi:10.1074/jbc.M303724200. PMID 14623887.
  35. ^ Novina CD, Kumar S, Bajpai U, Cheriyath V, Zhang K, Pillai S, Wortis HH, Roy AL (July 1999). "Regulation of nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of TFII-I by Bruton's tyrosine kinase". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (7): 5014–24. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.7.5014. PMC 84330. PMID 10373551.
  36. ^ Yang W, Desiderio S (January 1997). "BAP-135, a target for Bruton's tyrosine kinase in response to B cell receptor engagement". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (2): 604–9. Bibcode:1997PNAS...94..604Y. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.2.604. PMC 19560. PMID 9012831.
  37. ^ Guo B, Kato RM, Garcia-Lloret M, Wahl MI, Rawlings DJ (August 2000). "Engagement of the human pre-B cell receptor generates a lipid raft-dependent calcium signaling complex". Immunity. 13 (2): 243–53. doi:10.1016/s1074-7613(00)00024-8. PMID 10981967.
  38. ^ Johannes FJ, Hausser A, Storz P, Truckenmüller L, Link G, Kawakami T, Pfizenmaier K (November 1999). "Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) associates with protein kinase C mu". FEBS Lett. 461 (1–2): 68–72. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)01424-6. PMID 10561498.
  39. ^ Matsushita M, Yamadori T, Kato S, Takemoto Y, Inazawa J, Baba Y, Hashimoto S, Sekine S, Arai S, Kunikata T, Kurimoto M, Kishimoto T, Tsukada S (April 1998). "Identification and characterization of a novel SH3-domain binding protein, Sab, which preferentially associates with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BtK)". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 245 (2): 337–43. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.8420. PMID 9571151.
  40. ^ Yamadori T, Baba Y, Matsushita M, Hashimoto S, Kurosaki M, Kurosaki T, Kishimoto T, Tsukada S (May 1999). "Bruton's tyrosine kinase activity is negatively regulated by Sab, the Btk-SH3 domain-binding protein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (11): 6341–6. Bibcode:1999PNAS...96.6341Y. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.11.6341. PMC 26883. PMID 10339589.

Further reading

External links