Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor

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Protein CSF1R PDB 2I0V.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesCSF1R, C-FMS, CD115, CSF-1R, CSFR, FIM2, FMS, HDLS, M-CSF-R, colony stimulating factor 1 receptor, BANDDOS, HDLS1
External IDsOMIM: 164770 MGI: 1339758 HomoloGene: 3817 GeneCards: CSF1R
EC number2.7.10.1
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 5: 150.05 – 150.11 MbChr 18: 61.23 – 61.27 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR), and CD115 (Cluster of Differentiation 115), is a cell-surface protein encoded, in humans, by the CSF1R gene (known also as c-FMS).[5][6] It is a receptor for a cytokine called colony stimulating factor 1.


The gene is located on long arm of chromosome 5 (5q32) on the Crick (minus) strand. It is 60.002 kilobases in length. The encoded protein has 972 amino acids and a predicted molecular weight of 107.984 kiloDaltons. The first intron of the CSF1R gene contains a transcriptionally inactive ribosomal protein L7 processed pseudogene, oriented in the opposite direction to the CSF1R gene.[5]


The encoded protein is a single pass type I membrane protein and acts as the receptor for colony stimulating factor 1, a cytokine which controls the production, differentiation, and function of macrophages. This receptor mediates most, if not all, of the biological effects of this cytokine. Ligand binding activates CSF1R through a process of oligomerization and trans-phosphorylation. The encoded protein is a tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor and member of the CSF1/PDGF receptor family of tyrosine-protein kinases.[7][8]

Clinical significance

Increased levels of CSF1R1 are found in microglia in Alzheimer's disease and after brain injuries. The increased receptor expression causes microglia to become more active.[9] Both CSF1R, and its ligand colony stimulating factor 1 play an important role in the development of the mammary gland and may be involved in the process of mammary gland carcinogenesis.[10][11][12]

Mutations in CSF1R are associated with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and type M4 acute myeloblastic leukemia.[13]

Mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain have been associated with hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids.

As a drug target

Because CSF1R is overexpressed in many cancers and on tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), CSF1R inhibitors (and CSF1 inhibitors) have been studied for many years as a possible treatment for cancer or inflammatory diseases.[14][15] As of 2017 CSF1R inhibitors in clinical trials include :[15] Pexidartinib, PLX7486, ARRY-382, JNJ-40346527,[16] BLZ945, Emactuzumab, AMG820, IMC-CS4. (PD-0360324 and MCS110 are CSF1 inhibitors)[17]

Another CSF1R inhibitor that targets/depletes TAMs is Cabiralizumab (cabira; FPA-008) which is a monoclonal antibody[18] and is in early clinical trials for metastatic pancreatic cancer.[19][20]


Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor has been shown to interact with:

See also


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000182578 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024621 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ a b EntrezGene 1436
  6. ^ Galland F, Stefanova M, Lafage M, Birnbaum D (1992). "Localization of the 5' end of the MCF2 oncogene to human chromosome 15q15→q23". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 60 (2): 114–6. doi:10.1159/000133316. PMID 1611909.
  7. ^ Xu Q, Malecka KL, Fink L, Jordan EJ, Duffy E, Kolander S, Peterson JR, Dunbrack RL (2015). "Identifying three-dimensional structures of autophosphorylation complexes in crystals of protein kinases". Science Signaling. 8 (405): rs13. doi:10.1126/scisignal.aaa6711. PMC 4766099. PMID 26628682.
  8. ^ Meyers MJ, Pelc M, Kamtekar S, Day J, Poda GI, Hall MK, et al. (2010). "Structure-based drug design enables conversion of a DFG-in binding CSF-1R kinase inhibitor to a DFG-out binding mode". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 20 (5): 1543–7. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.01.078. PMID 20137931.
  9. ^ Mitrasinovic OM, Grattan A, Robinson CC, Lapustea NB, Poon C, Ryan H, Phong C, Murphy GM (April 2005). "Microglia overexpressing the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor are neuroprotective in a microglial-hippocampal organotypic coculture system". J. Neurosci. 25 (17): 4442–51. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0514-05.2005. PMC 6725106. PMID 15858070.
  10. ^ Tamimi RM, Brugge JS, Freedman ML, Miron A, Iglehart JD, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE (January 2008). "Circulating colony stimulating factor-1 and breast cancer risk". Cancer Res. 68 (1): 18–21. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-3234. PMC 2821592. PMID 18172291.
  11. ^ Pollard JW, Hennighausen L (September 1994). "Colony stimulating factor 1 is required for mammary gland development during pregnancy". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (20): 9312–6. Bibcode:1994PNAS...91.9312P. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.20.9312. PMC 44802. PMID 7937762.
  12. ^ Sapi E (January 2004). "The role of CSF-1 in normal physiology of mammary gland and breast cancer: an update". Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood). 229 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1177/153537020422900101. PMID 14709771. S2CID 30541196. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2011-05-09.
  13. ^ Ridge SA, Worwood M, Oscier D, Jacobs A, Padua RA (February 1990). "FMS mutations in myelodysplastic, leukemic, and normal subjects". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (4): 1377–80. Bibcode:1990PNAS...87.1377R. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.4.1377. JSTOR 2353838. PMC 53478. PMID 2406720.
  14. ^ Patel S, Player MR (2009). "Colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor inhibitors for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory disease". Curr Top Med Chem. 9 (7): 599–610. doi:10.2174/156802609789007327. PMID 19689368.
  15. ^ a b Cannarile MA, Weisser M, Jacob W, Jegg AM, Ries CH, Rüttinger D (2017). "Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) inhibitors in cancer therapy". Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer. 5 (1): 53. doi:10.1186/s40425-017-0257-y. PMC 5514481. PMID 28716061.
  16. ^ Genovese MC, Hsia E, Belkowski SM, Chien C, Masterson T, Thurmond RL, Manthey CL, Yan XD, Ge T, Franks C, Greenspan A (2015). "Results from a Phase IIA Parallel Group Study of JNJ-40346527, an Oral CSF-1R Inhibitor, in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis despite Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drug Therapy". The Journal of Rheumatology. 42 (10): 1752–60. doi:10.3899/jrheum.141580. PMID 26233509.
  17. ^ Interest Builds in CSF1R for Targeting Tumor Microenvironment
  18. ^ A phase I/II dose escalation and expansion study of cabiralizumab (cabira; FPA-008), an anti-CSF1R antibody, in tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT, diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis D-PVNS).
  19. ^ A Study of Cabiralzumab Given by Itself or With Nivolumab in Advanced Cancer or Cancer That Has Spread
  20. ^ Novel Combination Shows Promising Responses in Pancreatic Cancer Nov 2017
  21. ^ Mancini A, Koch A, Wilms R, Tamura T (April 2002). "c-Cbl associates directly with the C-terminal tail of the receptor for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor, c-Fms, and down-modulates this receptor but not the viral oncogene v-Fms". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (17): 14635–40. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109214200. PMID 11847211.
  22. ^ Courtneidge SA, Dhand R, Pilat D, Twamley GM, Waterfield MD, Roussel MF (March 1993). "Activation of Src family kinases by colony stimulating factor-1, and their association with its receptor". EMBO J. 12 (3): 943–50. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1993.tb05735.x. PMC 413295. PMID 7681396.
  23. ^ Mancini A, Niedenthal R, Joos H, Koch A, Trouliaris S, Niemann H, Tamura T (September 1997). "Identification of a second Grb2 binding site in the v-Fms tyrosine kinase". Oncogene. 15 (13): 1565–72. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201518. PMID 9380408.
  24. ^ Bourette RP, De Sepulveda P, Arnaud S, Dubreuil P, Rottapel R, Mouchiroud G (June 2001). "Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 interacts with the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor and negatively regulates its proliferation signal". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (25): 22133–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M101878200. PMID 11297560.

Further reading

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.