List of WHO AWaRe antibiotics

From WikiProjectMed
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Antibiotic resistance

This is a list of infections and antibiotics as detailed in the WHO AWaRe classification in the World Health Organization's book The WHO AWaRe (Access, Watch, Reserve) antibiotic book (2022) .[1][2] It provides guidance on using antibiotics responsibly, and is aimed at reducing antimicrobial resistance.[1]


Common infections in primary care

Common infections in primary care
Infection Symptom Management Advice Image Notes AWaRe guidance
Bronchitis Cough +/- fever[2] Bronchodilators[2]

Antipyretics (paracetamol, ibuprofen)[2] Mucolytics[2] Antitussives[2]

Cough may last weeks.[2]

Mostly viral and self-limiting.[2] Most resolve without treatment[2]

Depiction of a person suffering from Bronchitis.png Yellow/green sputum does not indicate bacterial infection.[2]

Investigations generally initially unnecessary in otherwise well adults.[3]

No antibiotic in most cases.[1]
Acute otitis media[4] Young children with ear pain[4]

Fever, discharge[2] Bulging red tympanic membrane[4] +/- Viral upper respiratory tract infection[4]

Antipyretics; (paracetamol, ibuprofen)[4]

Most resolve without treatment, particularly in high income countries.[5] Otitis media entdifferenziert2.jpg 2017: 317 million worldwide

Some protection with pneumococcal vaccine, flu vaccine, Hib vaccine[4] Treatment duration: 5 days

Amoxicillin (first)[4]

Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (second)[4]

Pharyngitis[6] Sore throat[6]

Viral: + Cough, headache, muscle aches)[6]

Bacterial: + Fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, exudate[6]

Paracetamol, ibuprofen[6] Most resolve without treatment.[6] Streptococcal pharyngitis.jpg Antibiotics where rheumatic fever is endemic.[6]

>80% viral[6]

Amoxicillin or phenoxymethylpenicillin (first)[6]

Cefalexin (second)[6]

Acute sinusitis[7] Sinuses (5937618994).jpg Amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid[2]
Dental infection Amoxicillin or phenoxymethylpenicillin (first)[2]
Acute localized lymphadenitis Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or cefalexin or cloxacillin[2]
Mild community-acquired pneumonia Amoxicillin or phenoxymethylpenicillin[2]
COPD exacerbations Amoxicillin (first), cefalexin (second), or doxycycline[2]

Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid if severe[2]

Infectious bloody diarrhoea or dysentery Ciprofloxacin[2]

Azithromycin (second)[2]

Enteric fever[1] Ciprofloxacin or azithromycin or ceftriaxone [2]
Urinary tract infection[1] Depiction of a lady who has a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI).png Nitrofurantoin or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid[1]
Skin/soft tissue infections

(impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis)[1]

DermNet NZ erysipelas-005.jpg amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or cefalexin or cloxacillin[1]
Wounds/burns related infection[1] Major-2nd-degree-burn.jpg amoxicillin /clavulanic acid or cefalexin or cloxacillin[1]

Common infections in hospital

Common infections in hospital
Infection Symptom Management Advice Image Notes AWaRe guidance
Sepsis (adults) Ceftriaxone or cefotaxime combined with gentamicin[2]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Zanichelli, Veronica; Sharland, Michael; Cappello, Bernadette; Moja, Lorenzo; Getahun, Haileyesus; Pessoa-Silva, Carmem; Sati, Hatim; van Weezenbeek, Catharina; Balkhy, Hanan; Simão, Mariângela; Gandra, Sumanth; Huttner, Benedikt (1 April 2023). "The WHO AWaRe (Access, Watch, Reserve) antibiotic book and prevention of antimicrobial resistance". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 101 (4): 290–296. doi:10.2471/BLT.22.288614. ISSN 0042-9686. Archived from the original on 7 May 2023. Retrieved 17 November 2023.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 The WHO AWaRe (Access, Watch, Reserve) antibiotic book Archived 2023-08-13 at the Wayback Machine. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  3. Smith, Maeve P.; Lown, Mark; Singh, Sonal; Ireland, Belinda; Hill, Adam T.; Linder, Jeffrey A.; Irwin, Richard S.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Azoulay, Elie; Barker, Alan F.; Blackhall, Fiona; Birring, Surinder S.; Bolser, Donald C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Chang, Anne B.; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; French, Cynthia T.; Grant, Cameron; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Irwin, Richard S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Kavanagh, Joanne; Lai, Kefang; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Lilly, Craig; Lown, Mark; Madison, J. Mark; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Stuart; McGarvey, Lorcan; Molasoitis, Alex; Murad, M. Hassan; Narasimhan, Mangala; Newcombe, Peter; Oppenheimer, John; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Russell, Richard J.; Ryu, Jay H.; Singh, Sonal; Smith, Jaclyn; Smith, Maeve P.; Tarlo, Susan M.; Vertigan, Anne E.; Weinberger, Miles (May 2020). "Acute Cough Due to Acute Bronchitis in Immunocompetent Adult Outpatients". Chest. 157 (5): 1256–1265. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2020.01.044. Archived from the original on 2023-12-04. Retrieved 2023-11-30.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 The WHO AWaRe. pp. 36-45
  5. Venekamp, Roderick P; Sanders, Sharon L; Glasziou, Paul P; Rovers, Maroeska M (15 November 2023). "Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2023 (11). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000219.pub5. Archived from the original on 16 November 2023. Retrieved 3 December 2023.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 The WHO AWaRe. pp. 46-60
  7. The WHO AWaRe. pp. 61-71