|Typhoid fever (Tutorial)|
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Onset of illness
Severe cases and carriers
Other people may carry the bacterium without being affected; however, they are still able to spread the disease to others.
Typhoid is spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person.
Risk factor 2
Those who travel in the developing world are also at risk.
Because symptoms are similar to those of many other infectious diseases, diagnosis requires either culturing the bacteria, or detecting the bacterium's DNA in the blood, stool, or bone marrow.
Bone marrow testing
Travel to endemic areas
Vaccination is recommended for those at high risk, or people traveling to areas where the disease is common.
Infected persons quarantine
Until it has been confirmed that an individual's infection is cleared, the individual should not prepare food for others.
In 2015, there were 12.5 million new cases worldwide.
Epidemiology - geography
The disease is most common in India.
Epidemiology - demographic
Risk of death
The risk of death may be as high as 20% without treatment, and 1 to 4% with treatment.
The most notorious carrier of typhoid fever, but by no means the most destructive, was Mary Mallon, also known as Typhoid Mary.
In 1907, she was the first typhoid carrier identified and traced, while working as a cook in New York. She was associated with 53 cases and three deaths.
She died of pneumonia after 26 years in quarantine.
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