Video:Swine influenza

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Definition

Swine influenza or flu, is an infection caused by any of several types of swine influenza viruses; Swine influenza virus is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs.[1] It is estimated that, in the 2009 flu pandemic, 11 to 21 percent of the then global population, of around 700 million to 1 (point) 4 billion people, contracted the illness, more in absolute terms than the Spanish flu pandemic.[2][3]

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, watery eyes, body aches, shortness of breath, headache, weight loss, chills, sneezing, runny nose, coughing, dizziness, abdominal pain, lack of appetite, and fatigue. The 2009 outbreak showed an increased percentage of individuals reporting diarrhea and vomiting, as well. [4]

Transmission

Individuals who work with poultry and swine, especially those with intense exposures, are at increased risk of zoonotic infection with influenza virus endemic in these animals, and constitute a population of human hosts in which zoonosis and reassortment can co-occur.[5]

Diagnosis

The CDC recommends real-time PCR as the method of choice for diagnosing H1N1.[6] The oral or nasal fluid collection and RNA virus-preserving filter-paper card is commercially available.[7]

Prevention

Vaccines are available for different kinds of swine flu. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the new swine flu vaccine for use in the United States on September 15, 2009.[8] Studies by the National Institutes of Health show a single dose creates enough antibodies to protect against the virus within about 10 days.[9]

Treatment

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of oseltamivir which is Tamiflu or zanamivir which is Relenza for the treatment or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses; however, the majority of people infected with the virus make a full recovery without requiring medical attention or antiviral drugs.[10]

References

  1. Swine influenza. The Merck Veterinary Manual. 2008. ISBN 978-1-4421-6742-1. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
  2. "CDC estimate of global H1N1 pandemic deaths: 284,000". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  3. "First Global Estimates of 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Mortality Released by CDC-Led Collaboration". CDC. CDC. 20 November 2019. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  4. Jilani, Talha N.; Jamil, Radia T.; Siddiqui, Abdul H. (2022), "H1N1 Influenza", StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, PMID 30020613, retrieved 2022-03-07
  5. Gray GC, Kayali G (April 2009). "Facing pandemic influenza threats: the importance of including poultry and swine workers in preparedness plans". Poultry Science. 88 (4): 880–84. doi:10.3382/ps.2008-00335. PMID 19276439.
  6. "CDC H1N1 Flu | Interim Guidance on Specimen Collection, Processing, and Testing for Patients with Suspected Novel Influenza A (H1N1) (Swine Flu) Virus Infection". Cdc.gov. 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
  7. "RNASound (TM) RNA Sampling Cards (25)". fortiusbio.com. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  8. "FDA Approves Vaccines for 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus". FDA. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
  9. "NIH studies on Swine flu vaccine". NIH. Archived from the original on October 13, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
  10. "WHO | Pandemic (H1N1) 2009: Frequently asked questions".