Video:Polio

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Definition

Polio, also called poliomyelitis, or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.[1]

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Symptoms

Polio causes muscle weakness, resulting in an inability to move in roughly one half percent of people, who are infected with the virus.[1]

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Onset of symptoms

This can occur over a few hours, to a few days.[1][2]

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Areas of the body affected

The weakness most often involves the legs, but can also include the muscles of the head, neck, and diaphragm.[1]

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Risk of death

Many people fully recover,[1] but there is a risk of death. About 2 to 5 percent of children, and 15 to 30 percent of adults die, if they develop muscle weakness.[1]

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Minor symptoms

Another 25 percent of people infected have minor symptoms such as fever, and a sore throat, that resolve in one to two weeks[1] . Five percent have headache, neck stiffness, and pains in the arms and legs.[1][2] About 70 percent of infections have no symptoms at all.[1]

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Post-polio syndrome

Years after recovery ,post-polio syndrome may occur with a slow development of muscle weakness, similar to the persons original symptoms.[3]

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Spread

Poliovirus is usually spread from person to person through infected fecal matter entering the mouth, [1] from food or water containing human feces, and less commonly from infected saliva.[1][2]

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Duration of infectiousness

Those who are infected may spread the disease for up to six weeks, even if no symptoms are present.[1]

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Diagnosis

The disease may be diagnosed by finding the virus in the feces, or detecting antibodies against it in the blood.[1] The disease only occurs naturally in humans.[1]

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Prevention

Polio is preventable with the polio vaccine; however, multiple doses are required for it to be effective.[2]

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Vaccine boosters

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends polio vaccination boosters for travelers, and those who live in countries where the disease is occurring.[4]

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Treatment and current cases

Once infected there is no specific treatment.[2] In 2018, there were 33 cases of wild polio, and 103 cases of vaccine-derived polio.[5] This is down from 350,000 wild cases in 1988.[2] In 2018, the disease was only spread between people in Afghanistan and Pakistan.[5]

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History

Poliomyelitis has existed for thousands of years, with depictions of the disease in ancient art.[1] The disease was first recognized as a distinct condition by the English physician Michael Underwood in 1789,[1] and the virus that causes it was first identified in 1908 by the Austrian immunologist Karl Landsteiner.[6]

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History of endemic polio

Major outbreaks started to occur in the late 19th century, in Europe and the United States.[1] In the 20th century it became one of the most worrying childhood diseases in these areas.[7]

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History of the polio vaccine

The first polio vaccine was developed in the 1950s by Jonas Salk.[8] In 2013, the World Health Organization hoped that vaccination efforts, and early detection of cases would result in global eradication of the disease by 2018.[9]

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References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 Hamborsky J, Kroger A, Wolfe C, eds. (2015), "Poliomyelitis", Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (The Pink Book) (13th ed.), Washington DC: Public Health Foundation, (chap. 18), archived from the original on 30 December 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 "Poliomyelitis Fact sheet N°114". who.int. October 2014. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  3. "Post-Polio Syndrome Fact Sheet". NIH. 16 April 2014. Archived from the original on 29 July 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
  4. "Guidance to US Clinicians Regarding New WHO Polio Vaccination Requirements for Travel by Residents of and Long-term Visitors to Countries with Active Polio Transmission". CDC. 2 June 2014. Archived from the original on 4 June 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "This page allows you to request a table with AFP/polio data". WHO. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  6. Daniel, Thomas M.; Robbins, Frederick C., eds. (1999). Polio (1st ed.). Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press. p. 11. ISBN 9781580460668. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016.
  7. Wheeler, Derek S.; Wong, Hector R.; Shanley, Thomas P., eds. (2009). Science and practice of pediatric critical care medicine. London: Springer. pp. 10–11. ISBN 9781848009219. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016.
  8. Aylward R (2006). "Eradicating polio: today's challenges and tomorrow's legacy". Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 100 (5–6): 401–13. doi:10.1179/136485906X97354. PMID 16899145.
  9. "Global leaders support new six-year plan to deliver a polio-free world by 2018". who.int. 25 April 2013. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.