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Onset of symptoms
Areas of the body affected
Risk of death
Another 25 percent of people infected have minor symptoms such as fever, and a sore throat, that resolve in one to two weeks . Five percent have headache, neck stiffness, and pains in the arms and legs. About 70 percent of infections have no symptoms at all.
Duration of infectiousness
Those who are infected may spread the disease for up to six weeks, even if no symptoms are present.
Treatment and current cases
Once infected there is no specific treatment. In 2018, there were 33 cases of wild polio, and 103 cases of vaccine-derived polio. This is down from 350,000 wild cases in 1988. In 2018, the disease was only spread between people in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Poliomyelitis has existed for thousands of years, with depictions of the disease in ancient art. The disease was first recognized as a distinct condition by the English physician Michael Underwood in 1789, and the virus that causes it was first identified in 1908 by the Austrian immunologist Karl Landsteiner.
History of endemic polio
History of the polio vaccine
The first polio vaccine was developed in the 1950s by Jonas Salk. In 2013, the World Health Organization hoped that vaccination efforts, and early detection of cases would result in global eradication of the disease by 2018.
- Hamborsky J, Kroger A, Wolfe C, eds. (2015), "Poliomyelitis", Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (The Pink Book) (13th ed.), Washington DC: Public Health Foundation, (chap. 18), archived from the original on 30 December 2016.
- "Poliomyelitis Fact sheet N°114". who.int. October 2014. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- "Post-Polio Syndrome Fact Sheet". NIH. 16 April 2014. Archived from the original on 29 July 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- "Guidance to US Clinicians Regarding New WHO Polio Vaccination Requirements for Travel by Residents of and Long-term Visitors to Countries with Active Polio Transmission". CDC. 2 June 2014. Archived from the original on 4 June 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- "This page allows you to request a table with AFP/polio data". WHO. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
- Daniel, Thomas M.; Robbins, Frederick C., eds. (1999). Polio (1st ed.). Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press. p. 11. ISBN 9781580460668. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016.
- Wheeler, Derek S.; Wong, Hector R.; Shanley, Thomas P., eds. (2009). Science and practice of pediatric critical care medicine. London: Springer. pp. 10–11. ISBN 9781848009219. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016.
- Aylward R (2006). "Eradicating polio: today's challenges and tomorrow's legacy". Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 100 (5–6): 401–13. doi:10.1179/136485906X97354. PMID 16899145.
- "Global leaders support new six-year plan to deliver a polio-free world by 2018". who.int. 25 April 2013. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2014.