Video:Pneumococcal infection

From WikiProjectMed
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Pneumococcal infection (Tutorial)
Commons / NC
Steps for video creation
Step 1Preview my changes (10 sec)
Step 2Upload to Commons (10 min)

Edit with VisualEditor


Pneumococcal infection, also known as pneumococcal disease is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae.[1] Symptoms may include fever and chills, while treatment is via antibiotics.[2]


The presentation of pneumococcal infection depends on what has been infected. In the event of meningitis one finds the symptoms and signs to be: fever ,headache and stiff neck.If the affected individual has a blood infection then one finds, low alertness, chills and fever. [3]


In terms of complications one finds that pneumonia may complicate towards empyema, pericarditis and endobronchial obstruction.[3]


Streptococcus pneumoniaei, which is the cause, is a Gram-positive, spherical bacteria, alpha-hemolytic, (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic, (under anaerobic conditions), aerotolerant anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.[4]


Depending on the nature of infection an appropriate sample is collected for laboratory identification. Pneumococci are typically gram-positive cocci seen in pairs or chains. When cultured on blood agar plates with added optochin antibiotic disk they show alpha-hemolytic colonies and a clear zone of inhibition around the disk indicating sensitivity to the antibiotic.[5]

Differential diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of Pneumococcal infection is as follow: viral pneumonia, Klebsiella pneumonia, Legionella pneumonia and pleural effusion.[2]


The World Health Organization recommends routine childhood pneumococcal vaccination;[6] it is incorporated into the childhood immunization schedule in a number of countries including the United Kingdom,[7] United States,[8] and South Africa.[9]


Beta-lactam antibiotics, cephalosporins, are commonly used in combination with other antibiotics to treat community-acquired pneumonia.[10]


In 1881, the organism, known later in 1886 as the pneumococcus[11] for its role as a cause of pneumonia, was first isolated simultaneously and independently by the U.S. Army physician George Sternberg[12] and the French chemist Louis Pasteur.[13]


  1. Pratt, R. Douglas (2022). "5. Pneumococcal disease: infections caused by Streptococcus pneumonia". In Jong, Elaine C.; Stevens, Dennis L. (eds.). Netter's Infectious Diseases (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier. pp. 20–23. ISBN 978-0-323-71159-3. Archived from the original on 2023-10-20. Retrieved 2023-09-29.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Dion, Christopher F.; Ashurst, John V. (2024). "Streptococcus pneumoniae". StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Symptoms and Complications of Pneumococcal Disease | CDC". 28 July 2022. Archived from the original on 8 May 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  4. "Pinkbook: Pneumococcal Disease | CDC". 21 September 2022. Archived from the original on 1 September 2022. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  5. Werno AM, Murdoch DR (March 2008). "Medical microbiology: laboratory diagnosis of invasive pneumococcal disease". Clin. Infect. Dis. 46 (6): 926–32. doi:10.1086/528798. PMID 18260752.
  6. "Pneumococcal vaccines WHO position paper—2012" (PDF). Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 87 (14): 129–44. Apr 6, 2012. PMID 24340399. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2021.
  7. "Children to be given new vaccine". BBC News. 8 February 2006. Archived from the original on 30 May 2006. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  8. Dagan, Ron; Ben-Shimol, Shalom (2021). "21. Pneumococcal vaccine". In Vesikari, Timo; Damme, Pierre Van (eds.). Pediatric Vaccines and Vaccinations: A European Textbook (Second ed.). Switzerland: Springer. pp. 223–248. ISBN 978-3-030-77172-0.
  9. "Critical decline in pneumococcal disease and antibiotic resistance in South Africa". NICD. Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
  10. Group For Enteric; Von Gottberg, A.; Klugman, K. P.; Cohen, C.; Wolter, N.; De Gouveia, L.; Du Plessis, M.; Mpembe, R.; Quan, V.; Whitelaw, A.; Hoffmann, R.; Govender, N.; Meiring, S.; Smith, A. M.; Schrag, S. (2008). "Emergence of levofloxacin-non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae and treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children in South Africa: a cohort observational surveillance study". The Lancet. 371 (9618): 1108–1113. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60350-5. PMID 18359074. S2CID 205950081.
  11. Plotkin, Stanley; Orenstein, W; Offit, PA (September 22, 2012). Vaccines. Elsevier – Saunders. p. 542. ISBN 978-1455700905. Archived from the original on February 2, 2023. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
  12. Sternberg, George Miller (30 April 1881). "A fatal form of septicaemia in the rabbit produced by the subcutaneous injection of human saliva. An experimental research". Bulletin of the National Board of Health..
  13. Pasteur, Louis (1881). "Sur une maladie nouvelle provoquée par la salive d'un enfant mort de rage". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris. 92: 159..