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Campylobacteriosis is an infection by the Campylobacter bacterium, most commonly C. jejuni.[1][2]Campylobacteriosis is usually self-limiting and antimicrobial treatment is often not required, except in severe cases or immunocompromised individuals.[3] The most known source for Campylobacter is poultry, but due to their diverse natural reservoir, Campylobacter spp. can also be transmitted via water.[4]


Early symptoms may include fever, headache, and muscle pain, which can be severe, and last as long as 24 hours. After 1 to 5 days, typically, these are followed by diarrhea or dysentery, cramps, abdominal pain, and fever, in most people, the illness lasts for 2 to 10 days. [5][6][7][8]


Complications include toxic megacolon, dehydration and sepsis. Such complications generally occur in young children and immunocompromised people.[9]


Campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter bacteria which are curved or spiral, motile, non–spore-forming, Gram-negative rods. The disease is usually specifically due to C. jejuni, a spiral and comma-shaped bacterium normally found in cattle, swine, and birds, where it is nonpathogenic.[10]


The common routes of transmission for the disease-causing bacteria are fecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, ingestion of contaminated food , generally unpasteurized (raw) milk and undercooked or poorly handled poultry. Contact with contaminated poultry, livestock, or household pets, can also cause disease.[11][12][13]


Campylobacter organisms can be detected by performing a Gram stain of a stool sample with high specificity and sensitivity, but are most often diagnosed by stool culture.[14][15]

Differential diagnosis

In terms of the differential diagnosis we find the following should be considered,Amebiasis,inflammatory bowel disease, Salmonella infection ,and viral gastroenteritis.[16]


In terms of prevention the World Health Organization recommends the following,food should be properly cooked and hot when served, consume only pasteurized or boiled milk and milk products, never raw milk products. If you are not sure of the safety of drinking water, boil it, or disinfect it with chemical disinfectant, and finally wash hands thoroughly and frequently with soap, especially after contact with pets and farm animals.[17][18]


The infection is usually self-limiting, and in most cases, symptomatic treatment by liquid and electrolyte replacement is enough in human infections.[19]


Campylobacter is one of the most common causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis.[20] For instance, an estimated 2 million cases of Campylobacter enteritis occur annually in the U.S., accounting for 5 to 7 percent of cases of gastroenteritis. Furthermore, in the United Kingdom during 2000, Campylobacter jejuni was involved in 77 (point) 3 percent in all cases of laboratory confirmed foodborne illness.[21] About 20 of every 100 thousand people are diagnosed with campylobacteriosis every year, and with many cases going unreported.[22]


  1. Archived 10 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine Centers for disease Control and Prevention
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  9. Saxena, Shailendra K. (21 November 2019). Water-Associated Infectious Diseases. Springer Nature. p. 33. ISBN 978-981-13-9197-2. Archived from the original on 30 June 2023. Retrieved 12 May 2023.
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  11. Saenz Y, Zarazaga M, Lantero M, Gastanares MJ, Baquero F, Torres C (2000). "Antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter strains isolated from animals, foods, and humans in Spain in 1997–1998". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 44 (2): 267–71. doi:10.1128/AAC.44.2.267-271.2000. PMC 89669. PMID 10639348.
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