2019–2021 polio outbreak in the Philippines

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2019–2021 polio outbreak in the Philippines
2019-21 polio outbreak in the Philippines.svg
Map of provinces (including Metro Manila) with confirmed cases
DiseasePolio
Virus strain
LocationPhilippines
Index caseMarogong, Lanao del Sur
DateSeptember 19, 2019 – June 11, 2021
Confirmed cases17[2]
Deaths
0[2]
Vaccinations4,750,000+
(2019 – August 2020)[3]

The 2019–2021 polio outbreak in the Philippines was an epidemic. For the previous 19 years, the Philippines was free of any polio-related diseases. On September 14, 2019, the disease began to resurface through a positive test result done to a 3-year-old girl from Mindanao. After the confirmation of a second case from tests done on a 5-year-old boy, the government of the Philippines publicly declared a polio outbreak on September 19, 2019.[4] On June 11, 2021, the WHO announced that the outbreak has ended.[5]

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the Philippines eradicated polio in 2000.[6]

Epidemiology

On September 19, 2019, a polio outbreak was reported in the Philippines. After two polio cases were reported, the authorities inspected several places including Metro Manila and Davao City. Samples taken from several places across Manila were confirmed to contain "vaccine-derived polio virus" type 2 (VDPV2), similar to the pathogen found on the first two confirmed cases.[4] The government decided to vaccinate all the children regardless of whether they have been affected by polio or not. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) have worked with the government of the Philippines in a massive polio vaccination campaign; other NGOs like the Red Cross are also collaborating in the campaign as well.[7]

Four cases have been confirmed as of November 5, 2019: the first was a three-year-old girl in Lanao del Sur with the other cases reported in Laguna, Maguindanao, and Sultan Kudarat.[8][9] It is believed that the public's distrust in the country's poor healthcare system is a cause of the polio outbreak.[10]

This is not the first disease outbreak in the Philippines in 2019. In February 2019, a measles outbreak occurred as a result of public distrust in the Philippines' poor healthcare system.[11] As of January 2019, the Philippines has been combating a dengue outbreak, the worst dengue outbreak that the Philippines has experienced since 2012. Like the measles outbreak, the dengue outbreak was also caused by public distrust of the dengue vaccination campaign in 2012.[12]

The World Health Organization and UNICEF Philippines, declared the official end of the polio outbreak on June 11, 2021, after the virus has not been detected in the past 16 months.[13]

Summary of polio cases
Case
no.
Date Age Gender Notes Ref.
1 September 19 3 Female Index case involving a girl from Marogong, Lanao del Sur [14][15]
2 September 20 5 Male From Laguna; immunocompromised [16]
3 October 28 4 Female From Datu Piang, Maguindanao [15]
4 November 5 ? ? From an unspecified location in Mindanao [17][18]
5 November 20 2 Female From Maguindanao [18]
6 November 20 1 Male From Cotabato City [18]
7 November 20 4 Female From Cotabato [18]
8 November 25 9 Female From Basilan [19]
9–12 No data
13 January 16, 2020 2 Male From Maguindanao [20]
14 January 16, 2020 3 Male From Maguindanao [20]
15 January 16, 2020 2 Male From Sultan Kudarat [20]
16 January 16, 2020 3 Male From Quezon City [20]
17 February 15, 2020 1 Male From Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija [21]

Response

The-decade-of-the-last-recorded-case-of-paralytic-polio-by-country.png

Domestic

During this epidemic, WHO, UNICEF and other private medical communities are working hand in hand to help the Philippines Department of Health in conducting enormous vaccination runs throughout Metro Manila, Davao City, Marawi, and other major cities in the country.[22] The campaign sought to end the rise of the deadly virus. According to the Philippine Red Cross, the duration of the mass vaccination run happened between October 14 and 27, 2019; the number of children they aimed to have vaccinated is 65,000 children.[22]

As of October 2, 2019, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) has pledged US$336,700 from it relief funds in efforts to eradicate polio from the Philippines.[10]

International

The outbreak not only poses a risk to the citizens of the Philippines but also raises concerns among neighboring countries regarding the spread of the disease. The Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia to the Philippines has issued an advisory with the objective of containing the transmission of polio..[23]

References

  1. "Situation Report 12: Polio Outbreak" (PDF). September 20, 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 22, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "'Major win': WHO, UNICEF declare end of polio outbreak in Philippines". ABS-CBN News. June 11, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  3. "DOH: 95% of polio vaccination target reached". Philippine News Agency. August 30, 2020. Archived from the original on July 10, 2022. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "WHO | Polio outbreak– The Philippines". WHO. Archived from the original on September 29, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  5. "WHO declares end of polio outbreak in PH". Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved August 6, 2023.
  6. Gutierrez, Jason (September 19, 2019). "Philippines Declares Polio Outbreak After 19 Years Free of the Disease". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on April 15, 2021. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  7. "Massive vaccine campaign underway in the Philippines after polio's return". Public Radio International. Archived from the original on June 12, 2020. Retrieved November 19, 2019.
  8. Crisostomo, Sheila (November 6, 2019). "DOH confirms Philippine's 4th polio case". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on December 12, 2019. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  9. Arguilas, Carolyn (October 29, 2019). "2 of 3 confirmed polio cases are from BARMM; 3rd is from Datu Piang". MindaNews. Archived from the original on October 30, 2019. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Red Cross alarm over polio outbreak in Philippines after 19 years". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on September 19, 2020. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  11. "Philippines: Vaccine scare blamed for deadly measles outbreak". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on September 9, 2020. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  12. "Philippines: Worst dengue outbreak in years kills over a thousand". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on September 17, 2020. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  13. "Polio outbreak ends in Philippines". Sun Star. June 11, 2021. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  14. Hunt, Katie (September 19, 2019). "Polio makes a comeback in the Philippines 19 years after the country was declared free of the disease". CNN. Archived from the original on October 5, 2023. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  15. 15.0 15.1 "DOH reports 3rd confirmed case of polio in Maguindanao". Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  16. "DOH confirms 2nd case of polio in the Philippines". Rappler. September 20, 2021. Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  17. "DOH confirms 4th case of polio in the Philippines". Rappler. November 5, 2019. Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 "DOH confirms three more cases of polio". Department of Health. November 20, 2019. Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  19. "DOH confirms 8th polio case in the country". Department of Health. November 25, 2019. Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 "DOH confirms new polio cases in the country". Department of Health. January 16, 2020. Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  21. "DOH confirms 17th polio case in the country". Department of Health. February 15, 2020. Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  22. 22.0 22.1 "WHO and UNICEF back the Department of Health in vaccinating 1.8 million children against polio". www.unicef.org. Archived from the original on July 11, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  23. "Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia in Manila, Accredited to the Republic of Marshall Islands and the Republic of Palau the Republic of the Philippines". Kementerian Luar Negeri Repulik Indonesia (in Bahasa Indonesia). Archived from the original on August 15, 2019. Retrieved November 19, 2019.