Water for injection

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Water for injection
Sterilewater.jpg
Sterile water for injection
Clinical data
Defined daily dosenot established[1]
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comFDA Professional Drug Information
Legal
License data
Chemical and physical data
FormulaH2O

Water for injection is water of extra high quality without significant contamination.[2] A sterile version is used for making solutions that will be given by injection.[3] Before such use other substances generally must be added to make the solution more or less isotonic.[4] It can be given by injection into a vein, muscle, or under the skin.[5] A non-sterile version may be used in manufacturing with sterilization occurring later in the production process.[6]

If it is given by injection into a vein without making it more or less isotonic, breakdown of red blood cells may occur.[4] This can then result in kidney problems.[4] Excessive amount may also result in fluid overload.[5] Water for injection is generally made by distillation or reverse osmosis.[6] It should contain less than a mg of elements other than water per 100 ml.[6] Versions with agents that stop bacterial growth are also available.[6]

It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[7] Water for injection is available over the counter.[4] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.03–0.15 per 10 ml vial.[8] In the United Kingdom this amount cost the NHS 0.25 to 1.40 pounds.[9]

Dosage

The defined daily dose is not established[1]

Other names

Aqua ad iniectabilia or aqua ad injectionem

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "WHOCC - ATC/DDD Index". www.whocc.no. Retrieved 13 September 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. "<1232> Water for Pharmaceutical Purposes" (PDF). hmc.usp.org. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 March 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. p. 493. hdl:10665/44053. ISBN 9789241547659.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Sterile Water for Injection - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Water for Injection - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Ghosh, Tapash K.; Jasti, Bhaskara R. (2004). Theory and Practice of Contemporary Pharmaceutics. CRC Press. p. 396. ISBN 9780203644478. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  8. "Water for Injection". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  9. British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. p. 685. ISBN 9780857111562.

External links

Identifiers: