Water for injection

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Water for injection
Sterile water for injection
Clinical data
Defined daily dosenot established[1]
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comFDA Professional Drug Information
License data
Chemical and physical data

Water for injection is water of extra high quality without significant contamination.[2] A sterile version is used for making solutions that will be given by injection.[3] Before such use other substances generally must be added to make the solution more or less isotonic.[4] It can be given by injection into a vein, muscle, or under the skin.[5] A non-sterile version may be used in manufacturing with sterilization occurring later in the production process.[6]

If it is given by injection into a vein without making it more or less isotonic, breakdown of red blood cells may occur.[4] This can then result in kidney problems.[4] Excessive amount may also result in fluid overload.[5] Water for injection is generally made by distillation or reverse osmosis.[6] It should contain less than a mg of elements other than water per 100 ml.[6] Versions with agents that stop bacterial growth are also available.[6]

It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[7] Water for injection is available over the counter.[4] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.03–0.15 per 10 ml vial.[8] In the United Kingdom this amount cost the NHS 0.25 to 1.40 pounds.[9]


The defined daily dose is not established[1]

Other names

Aqua ad iniectabilia or aqua ad injectionem


  1. 1.0 1.1 "WHOCC - ATC/DDD Index". www.whocc.no. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  2. "<1232> Water for Pharmaceutical Purposes" (PDF). hmc.usp.org. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 March 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  3. World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. p. 493. hdl:10665/44053. ISBN 9789241547659.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Sterile Water for Injection - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Water for Injection - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Ghosh, Tapash K.; Jasti, Bhaskara R. (2004). Theory and Practice of Contemporary Pharmaceutics. CRC Press. p. 396. ISBN 9780203644478. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017.
  7. World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  8. "Water for Injection". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  9. British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. p. 685. ISBN 9780857111562.

External links