WHO Blue Books

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WHO Blue Books
WHO Digestive System Tumours blue book.jpg
Cover of the WHO blue book on Digestive System Tumours, 5th edition

Digestive System Tumours

Breast tumours Soft tissue and bone tumours Female genital tumours

Thoracic tumours
Edited byWHO Classification of Tumours Group (World Health Organization)
CountryFrance
DisciplineTumours
PublisherInternational Agency for Research on Cancer
Preceded byInternational Histological Classification of Tumors

The WHO Classification of Tumours, more commonly known as the WHO Blue Books, is a series of books that classify tumours. They are compiled by expert consensus and published by the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). They appear in print and online in a series of 15 books, each of which focuses on a major tumour group and defines the cause, mechanism, signs and symptoms, basic structure, diagnosis, epidemiology and outcomes of up to 300 types of tumours.

The project was started by the WHO in 1956 and the first series of books was published between 1967 and 1981, as the International Histological Classification of Tumors series. A fifth series was released in 2019. Terms included in the books appear in the international classification of diseases for tumours.

The classifications are regularly updated by an editorial board composed mostly of practicing pathologists. The method of classifying tumours in the Blue Books was discussed in an accompanying article in the International Journal of Cancer in June 2020, titled "WHO Classification of Tumours: How should tumors be classified? Expert consensus, systematic reviews or both?"[1]

The series

The WHO Classification of Tumours series, more commonly known as the WHO Blue Books, published by the WHO's IARC, is a series of books that classify tumours according to principally its location and histopathology.[2][3] They are compiled by expert consensus, teams of specialists at the International Agency for Research on Cancer, who summarize information from literature.[1] Terms included in the books appear in the international classification of diseases for tumours.[4][5]

They are published as a series of 15 books, in addition to a website, which provide information on cancer diagnosis, research, treatment and outcomes, particularly for pathologists and cancer researchers.[1][6] Each book defines the cause, mechanism, signs and symptoms, basic structure, diagnosis, epidemiology and outcomes of up to 300 types of tumours.[6] Between 150 - 200 authors, including radiologists, surgeons, physicians and epidemiologists, contribute to each book.[2]

Editorial board

The WHO Classification of Tumors Group is headed by Ian Cree.[3] The classifications are updated regularly by an editorial board composed mostly of practicing pathologists,[6][7] who review and agree on definitions and criteria for each tumor.[6]

The editorial board consists of standing members and expert members. Experts are listed in each of the tumour specialties; digestive system tumours, breast tumours, soft tissue and bone tumours, female genital tumours, thoracic tumours. central nervous system tumours, paediatric tumours, urinary and male genital tumours, head and neck tumours, and endocrine and neuroendocrine tumours.[8]

History

The WHO started the project on the blue books in 1956.[9]

First and second series (1967-2000)

Leslie Sobin edited the first edition, published from 1967 to 1981, as the International Histological Classification of Tumors series.[9][10] Sobin edited a second edition of 25 volumes, published by Springer between 1982 and 2002.[9]

In 1993 the WHO approved a concise classification of tumours affecting the central nervous system.[11] It was later revised in 2007 and then in 2016.[12]

Third series (2000)

The third edition of 10 volumes, was published in a new style as a series of World Health Organization Classification of Tumors from 2000 to 2005, and edited by Sobin and Paul Kleihues.[9][10]

Fourth series (2006)

In 2006, the fourth edition was initiated and guided by series editors Fred Bosman, Elaine S. Jaffe, Sunil R. Lakhani, and Hiroko Ohgaki. It was completed in 2018 and included 12 volumes plus revised versions of central nervous system tumours and blood cancers.[9]

The fourth edition of the WHO Classification of Digestive System Tumors was published in 2010.[13] A fourth edition describing breast tumours was published in 2012,[14] Tumours of the Central Nervous System in 2017,[15] and the WHO Classification of Skin Tumors in 2018.[16] In it, the classification of melanoma is based on its mechanism and its association with sun-exposed skin.[16]

  • WHO classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. Vol. 1 (4th ed.). Lyon (France): International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2016. ISBN 978-92-832-4492-9. Archived from the original on 2023-02-01. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  • WHO Classification of Tumours of Endocrine Organs. Vol. 10 (4 ed.). Lyon (France): International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2017. ISBN 978-92-832-4493-6. Archived from the original on 2023-02-01. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  • WHO Classification of Skin Tumours. Vol. 11 (4th ed.). Lyon (France): nternational Agency for Research on Cancer. 2018. ISBN 978-92-832-2440-2. Archived from the original on 2022-07-11. Retrieved 2023-01-29.

Fifth series (2019)

A fifth series was released in 2019, in a lighter blue and with a bold “5” on the book spine, to make it distinct from older outdated editions that might inadvertently be referred to.[3] The text appears in two columns; previously there were three.[3] It is the first in the series of the WHO blue books to appear online in its complete form, and includes a few books from the fourth series with the aim of updating books as they develop.[3] Its website uses images and hyperlinks.[7]

The first volume to be produced was on the classification of Digestive System Tumours.[17] Seven years after the fourth edition, a fifth edition on Soft Tissue and Bone Tumours was published in May 2020.[18][19] The fifth Female Genital Tumours was published in September 2020.[20][21] The fifth edition of Thoracic Tumours was discussed at the 2020 World Conference on Lung Cancer in Toronto.[22] It includes additional chapters “Diagnostic Molecular Pathology” and “Essential or Desirable Diagnostic Criteria”, and some new lung cancer types.[22]

Consensus based versus evidence based approach

The method of classifying tumours in the Blue Books was discussed in an accompanying article in the International Journal of Cancer in June 2020, titled "WHO Classification of Tumours: How should tumors be classified? Expert consensus, systematic reviews or both?"[6][1] In it, they noted that heavy reliance on expert consensus relative to structured and controlled systematic reviews may result in bias, giving undue weight to particular literature or missing relevant studies.[6] In the first volume of the fifth series, 200 tumours or topics were marked as clinically irrelevant, and up to 130 were reported as “unknown”, with no further explanation of whether a detailed literature search was conducted.[6] Interpersonal and cultural factors, dominating characters, and the varying representations in each expert panel, influence decisions.[6] During updating, carrying forward previously incorrectly referenced material could also be a potential problem.[6]

The authors noted that biases are reduced somewhat by having an editorial board to oversee evidence and make decisions.[6] They questioned whether these problems could also be reduced by adding evidence‐based practices to the editorial process, but noted that imposing this might not be appropriate, and that some feel that "clinical judgment based on experience" has an importance that may not be emphasised from randomized controlled trials.[6] In conclusion, they proposed four “non‐negotiables” when carrying out literature reviews that affect important decisions for the WHO Blue Book series: transparency, searching rigor, double checking, risk of bias assessment.[1]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Plass, Christoph (2020). "A new series of Invited Reviews on WHO tumor classification". International Journal of Cancer. 146 (12): 3243. doi:10.1002/ijc.32983. ISSN 1097-0215. PMID 32187660.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Cree, Ian A; Indave, B Iciar (1 February 2020). "Commentary: Cancer research quality and tumour classification". Tumor Biology. 42 (2): 1010428320907544. doi:10.1177/1010428320907544. ISSN 1010-4283. PMID 32098581.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Turner, Luke (24 July 2019). "The Blue Books Are Back!". The Pathologist. Archived from the original on 15 May 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  4. "WHO Blue Book Terms | SEER Training". training.seer.cancer.gov. Archived from the original on 2021-07-09. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  5. Inzani, Frediano; Rindi, Guido (2017). "1. Classifications of neuroendocrine neoplasms". In Pacak, Karel; Taieb, David (eds.). Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine for Neuroendocrine Tumors. Humana Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-3-319-46036-9. Archived from the original on 2023-07-02. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 Uttley, Lesley; Indave, Blanca Iciar; Hyde, Chris; White, Valerie; Lokuhetty, Dilani; Cree, Ian (15 June 2020). "Invited commentary—WHO Classification of Tumours: How should tumors be classified? Expert consensus, systematic reviews or both?". International Journal of Cancer. 146 (12): 3516–3521. doi:10.1002/ijc.32975. ISSN 0020-7136. PMC 7818407. PMID 32170735.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Cree, Ian A.; White, Valerie A.; Indave, B. Iciar; Lokuhetty, Dilani (2020). "Revising the WHO classification: female genital tract tumours". Histopathology. 76 (1): 151–156. doi:10.1111/his.13977. ISSN 1365-2559. PMID 31846528. S2CID 209407479. Archived from the original on 2021-07-12. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  8. "WHO Classification of Tumours - Standing members". whobluebooks.iarc.fr. Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 "WHO Classification of Tumours". whobluebooks.iarc.fr. Archived from the original on 10 July 2021. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Kleihues, Paul; Sobin, Leslie H. (2000). "World Health Organization classification of tumors". Cancer. 88 (12): 2887. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(20000615)88:12<2887::AID-CNCR32>3.0.CO;2-F. ISSN 1097-0142. PMID 10870076. Archived from the original on 2021-07-12. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  11. "Appendix E. The new WHO Classification of Tumours affecting the Central Nervous System | Guidance on the use of temozolomide for the treatment of recurrent malignant glioma (brain cancer) | Guidance | NICE". www.nice.org.uk. 3 March 2016. Archived from the original on 8 July 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  12. Louis, David N.; Perry, Arie; Reifenberger, Guido; von Deimling, Andreas; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Cavenee, Webster K.; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Wiestler, Otmar D.; Kleihues, Paul; Ellison, David W. (1 June 2016). "The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System: a summary". Acta Neuropathologica. 131 (6): 803–820. doi:10.1007/s00401-016-1545-1. ISSN 1432-0533. PMID 27157931. S2CID 3345100. Archived from the original on 30 November 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  13. Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Odze, Robert D.; Klimstra, David; Paradis, Valerie; Rugge, Massimo; Schirmacher, Peter; Washington, Kay M.; Carneiro, Fatima; Cree, Ian A. (January 2020). "The 2019 WHO classification of tumours of the digestive system". Histopathology. 76 (2): 182–188. doi:10.1111/his.13975. ISSN 1365-2559. PMC 7003895. PMID 31433515.
  14. Tan, Puay Hoon; Ellis, Ian; Allison, Kimberly; Brogi, Edi; Fox, Stephen B; Lakhani, Sunil; Lazar, Alexander J; Morris, Elizabeth A; Sahin, Aysegul; Salgado, Roberto; Sapino, Anna; Sasano, Hironobu; Schnitt, Stuart; Sotiriou, Christos; Diest, Paul; White, Valerie A; Lokuhetty, Dilani; Cree, Ian A (August 2020). "The 2019 World Health Organization classification of tumours of the breast". Histopathology. 77 (2): 181–185. doi:10.1111/his.14091. hdl:11343/252349. ISSN 0309-0167. PMID 32056259. S2CID 211111446. Archived from the original on 2021-12-12. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  15. Katabi, Nora; Lewis, James S. (March 2017). "Update from the 4th Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumours: What Is New in the 2017 WHO Blue Book for Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions of the Neck and Lymph Nodes". Head and Neck Pathology. 11 (1): 48–54. doi:10.1007/s12105-017-0796-z. ISSN 1936-0568. PMC 5340737. PMID 28247228.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Garbe, Claus; Amaral, Teresa; Peris, Ketty; Hauschild, Axel; Arenberger, Petr; Bastholt, Lars; Bataille, Veronique; Marmol, Veronique del; Dréno, Brigitte; Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Höller, Christoph; Kaufmann, Roland; Lallas, Aimilios; Lebbé, Celeste; Malvehy, Josep; Middleton, Mark; Moreno-Ramirez, David; Pellacani, Giovanni; Saiag, Philippe; Stratigos, Alexander J.; Vieira, Ricardo; Zalaudek, Iris; Eggermont, Alexander M. M. (1 February 2020). "European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline for melanoma. Part 1: Diagnostics – Update 2019". European Journal of Cancer. 126: 141–158. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2019.11.014. ISSN 0959-8049. PMID 31928887. Archived from the original on 2 July 2023. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  17. Washington, Mary Kay; Goldberg, Richard M.; Chang, George J.; Limburg, Paul; Lam, Alfred K.; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Arends, Mark J.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Klimstra, David S.; Rugge, Massimo; Schirmacher, Peter; Lazar, Alexander J.; Odze, Robert D.; Carneiro, Fatima; Fukayama, Masashi; Cree, Ian A. (1 March 2021). "Diagnosis of digestive system tumours". International Journal of Cancer. 148 (5): 1040–1050. doi:10.1002/ijc.33210. hdl:20.500.11820/cde19704-b358-45fd-89cc-aae542d82305. ISSN 1097-0215. PMID 32674220. S2CID 220608072. Archived from the original on 5 February 2023. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  18. Choi, Joon Hyuk; Ro, Jae Y. (1 May 2021). "The 2020 WHO Classification of Tumors of Bone: An Updated Review". Advances in Anatomic Pathology. 28 (3): 119–138. doi:10.1097/PAP.0000000000000293. ISSN 1533-4031. PMID 33480599. S2CID 231679037. Archived from the original on 2 April 2023. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  19. Anderson, William J.; Doyle, Leona A. (2021). "Updates from the 2020 World Health Organization Classification of Soft Tissue and Bone Tumours". Histopathology. 78 (5): 644–657. doi:10.1111/his.14265. ISSN 1365-2559. PMID 33438273. S2CID 231595171. Archived from the original on 2021-06-27. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  20. "New WHO Classification for Female Genital Tumours - International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting". www.iccr-cancer.org. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  21. Board, WHO Classification of Tumours Editorial (2020). Female Genital Tumours. ISBN 9789283245049. Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  22. 22.0 22.1 "The New WHO Classification of Lung Tumors". IASLC. February 2021. Archived from the original on 8 July 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2021.

External links