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Salmonellosis is a symptomatic infection caused by bacteria of the Salmonella type.[1] Efforts to prevent the disease include the proper washing, preparation, and cooking of food.[2]Salmonellosis is one of the most common causes of diarrhea globally.[3] In 2015, ninety thousand three hundred deaths occurred from nontyphoidal salmonellosis, and 178 thousand deaths from typhoidal salmonellosis.[4] On May of 2022, a U.S. recall of peanut butter from a major brand occurred after an outbreak of Salmonella was confirmed.[5]

Signs and symptoms 1

After a short incubation period of a few hours to one day, the bacteria multiply in the small intestine, causing an intestinal inflammation (enteritis). Most people with salmonellosis develop diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection.[6]

Signs and symptoms 2

Typhoid fever occurs when Salmonella bacteria enter the lymphatic system and cause a systemic form of salmonellosis. Endotoxins first act on the vascular and nervous apparatus, resulting in increased permeability and decreased tone of the vessels, upset thermal regulation, vomiting, and diarrhea.[6]


The cause of Salmonellosis is due to the Salmonella bacteria, it can be spread by raw or undercooked poultry, pork or beef, infected animals. As well as, a person infected with the bacteria.[7]


The diagnosis of an individual suspected of having Salmonella (Salmonellosis) is done via a lab test on stool, body tissues and body fluids, in an effort to detect the bacteria.[8]


In terms of prevention , always wash your hands if you have touched pets and other animals.Don’t allow children five years of age (or younger) or older adults to touch turtles, frogs, ducks or chickens which are all higher-risk animals. [9]


Electrolytes may be replenished with oral rehydration supplements, typically containing salts sodium chloride and potassium chloride.[10] Appropriate antibiotics, such as ceftriaxone, may be given to kill the bacteria, but are not necessary in most cases.[11] Azithromycin has been suggested to be better at treating typhoid in resistant populations than both fluoroquinolone drugs and ceftriaxone.[12]

Epidemiology 1

About 142 thousand people in the United States are infected each year with Salmonella Enteritidis from chicken eggs, and about 30 die.[13]In May 2022, a Salmonella outbreak was reported by the CDC in the U.S. The outbreak occurred in over 12 states, with several individuals hospitalized.[14][15] By the end of the same month the total affected individuals were sixteen, with more products from the same company being recalled.[16]

Epidemiology 2

An outbreak of salmonellosis started in Northern Europe in July 2012, caused by Salmonella thompson. The infections were linked to smoked salmon from the manufacturer Foppen, where the contamination had occurred. Most infections were reported in the Netherlands; over 1060 infections with this subspecies and four fatalities were confirmed.[17][18]


Both salmonellosis and the microorganism genus Salmonella derive their names from a modern latin coining after Daniel E. Salmon, an American veterinary surgeon, who found the bacterium in pigs.[19]


  1. "Salmonella". CDC. 9 March 2015. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  2. "Salmonella (non-typhoidal)". World Health Organization. December 2016. Archived from the original on 20 April 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  3. Hald, T. (2013). Advances in microbial food safety: 2. Pathogen update: Salmonella. Elsevier Inc. Chapters. p. 2.2. ISBN 9780128089606. Archived from the original on 2017-09-10.
  4. "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. 8 October 2016. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.
  5. "Jif peanut butter salmonella concerns prompt more recalls". Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Santos, Renato L.; Shuping Zhang; Renee M. Tsolis; Robert A. Kingsley; L. Gary Adams; Andreas J. Baumler (2001). "Animal models od Salmonella infections: enteritis versus typhoid fever". Microbes and Infection. 3 (14–15): 1335–1344. doi:10.1016/s1286-4579(01)01495-2. PMID 11755423.
  7. Canada, Public Health Agency of (7 September 2016). "Causes of salmonellosis (Salmonella)". Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  8. "Diagnosis and Treatment | Salmonella | CDC". 15 April 2019. Archived from the original on 17 May 2022. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  9. "Prevention | General Information | Salmonella | CDC". 2 March 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2022.
  10. Ajmera, Arun; Shabbir, Nadeem (2022). "Salmonella". StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  11. "Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections - Infectious Diseases". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  12. Effa, Emmanuel E; Bukirwa, Hasifa (5 October 2011). "Azithromycin for treating uncomplicated typhoid and paratyphoid fever (enteric fever)". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006083.pub3. Archived from the original on 24 May 2022. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  13. Black, Jane; O'Keefe, Ed (2009-07-08). "Administration Urged to Boost Food Safety Efforts". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2011-06-04. Retrieved 2009-07-07. Among them is a final rule, issued by the FDA, to reduce the contamination in eggs. About 142,000 Americans are infected each year with Salmonella enteritidis from eggs, the result of an infected hen passing along the bacterium. About 30 die.
  14. "CDC: Salmonella Outbreak Linked to Peanut Butter". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 21 May 2022. Archived from the original on 21 May 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  15. Nutrition, Center for Food Safety and Applied (21 May 2022). "The J. M. Smucker Co. Issues Voluntary Recall of Select Jif® Products Sold in the U.S. for Potential Salmonella Contamination". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 22 May 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  16. "How Does Peanut Butter Get Contaminated With Salmonella, Anyway?". MSN. Retrieved 28 May 2022.
  17. Veelgestelde vragen Salmonella Thompson 15 oktober 2012, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu [Frequently asked questions Salmonella Thompson 15 October 2012, Netherlands Institute for Public Health and the Environment].
  18. "Salmonella besmetting neemt verder af, 2 november 2012, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu" [Salmonella infections continue to decline 2 November 2012, Netherlands Institute for Public Healthand the Environment].
  19. "Daniel E. Salmon". Archived from the original on 6 February 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2022.