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Larry Sanger
A man wearing eyeglasses in a blue shirt with the collar unbuttoned looks straight at the viewer.
Sanger in July 2006
Lawrence Mark Sanger

(1968-07-16) July 16, 1968 (age 55)
EducationReed College (BA)
Ohio State University (MA, PhD)
OccupationInternet project developer
Known forCo-founding Wikipedia

Lawrence Mark Sanger (/ˈsæŋər/;[1] born July 16, 1968[2]) is an American Internet project developer,[3] co-founder of Nupedia,[4] co-founder of Wikipedia, and the founder of Citizendium.[5] He was born in Bellevue, Washington,[2] and grew up in Anchorage, Alaska.[6] He has earned an income through speaking and writing fees.[7] He announced in 2019 that he is developing the Encyclosphere.[8]

In college he became interested in the Internet and its potential as a publishing outlet.[9] From an early age he has been interested in philosophy.[9] Sanger's philosophical interests has focused on epistemology.[9] He formerly taught philosophy at his alma mater Ohio State University.[9]

Seeking employment online, Sanger joined Bomis to start an online encyclopedia called Nupedia[10] as editor-in-chief in 2000.[11] Frustrated with the slow progress of Nupedia, Sanger proposed implementing a wiki to solicit and receive articles to put through Nupedia's peer-review process, which led to the development and launch of Wikipedia in 2001.[11] He served as Wikipedia's community leader in its early stages[12] and formulated its original policies including "Verifiability".[13] He ended his participation in Wikipedia in 2002 because of a lack of quality control.[14]

Since his departure from Wikipedia he has been critical of the project.[15] He states that, despite its merits, Wikipedia lacks credibility and is being overrun by difficult people and their enablers, due to a lack of respect for expertise and authority.[16] Sanger started an alternative online encyclopedia to Wikipedia called Citizendium in 2006.[17] He has been involved with online educational projects such as WatchKnowLearn.[18]

Early life and education

Lawrence Mark Sanger was born in Bellevue, Washington, on July 16, 1968.[2] His father was a shorebird biologist and his mother raised the children.[19] When he was seven years old, his family moved to Anchorage, Alaska, where he grew up.[6] He has been an avid reader and he has played the fiddle.[20] In high school he undertook cross-country running and skiing.[19] He has been interested in philosophical topics at an early age.[9]

He graduated from high school in 1986 and attended Reed College, majoring in philosophy.[21] In college he became interested in the Internet and its potential as a publishing outlet.[9] He set up a listserver as a medium for students and tutors to meet for tutoring and and "to act as a forum for discussion of tutorials, tutorial methods, and the possibility and merits of a voluntary, free network of individual tutors and students finding each other via the Internet for education outside the traditional university setting".[22] He started and moderated a philosophy discussion list, the Association for Systematic Philosophy.[11]

In 1994, Sanger wrote a manifesto for the discussion group:

The history of philosophy is full of disagreement and confusion. One reaction by philosophers to this state of things is to doubt whether the truth about philosophy can ever be known, or whether there is any such thing as the truth about philosophy. But there is another reaction: one may set out to think more carefully and methodically than one's intellectual forebears.[11]

Sanger received a Bachelor of Arts degree in philosophy from Reed College in 1991, a Master of Arts from Ohio State University in 1995, and a Doctor of Philosophy from Ohio State University in 2000.[23] After receiving his PhD, he no longer wanted a career as a philosophy professor.[6] Beginning in 1998, he and a friend ran a website called "Sanger and Shannon's Review of Y2K News Reports",[24] a resource for people such as managers of computer systems who were concerned about the year 2000 problem.[11]


Sanger's philosophical interests has focused on epistemology, the theory of knowledge.[9] Sanger, a philosophy instructor,[25] began work as a lecturer at Ohio State University,[9] where he taught philosophy until 2005.[26] In 2008, Sanger went to the University of Oxford to debate the proposition that "the internet is the future of knowledge," where he stated that today's wikis and blogs are fundamentally changing the way knowledge is created and distributed.[27]

In 2011 Sanger told The Next Web, "Philosophers are all about trying to understand a problem in as clear a way as possible, and arriving at the most elegant solution to it. Whether it's a purely abstract problem about the analysis of thought, or something practical such as how to drive more traffic to a website, a lot of the same thinking goes into this."[18] "When launching Wikipedia, for example, I did have to draw on things I learned during my education, for determining the requirements of a good encyclopedia article looks likes", Sanger added.[18]

Nupedia and Wikipedia

Ten people are standing in the rear while two people, Sanger among them to the viewer's right, are seated in the front.
The Bomis staff in mid-2000. Sanger is seated right.

Nupedia was a Web-based encyclopedia whose articles, written by volunteer contributors possessing relevant subject matter expertise[28] and reviewed by editors prior to publication, were licensed as free content.[note 1][30] It was founded by Jimmy Wales and Sanger[4] and was underwritten by the company Bomis,[31] with Sanger hired as editor-in-chief.[32] Sanger had first come into contact with Wales in 1994 when he subscribed to Wales' mailing list entitled "Moderated Discussion of Objectivist Philosophy".[10] In January 2000, Sanger contacted online acquaintances about starting a news blog.[10] This was after the 2nd millennium had passed and rendered his Y2K site obsolete.[24] Sanger stated, "I was going to transfer into what would probably now be called a cultural blog."[18] Wales e-mailed Sanger back to invite him to work on his idea about an encyclopedia instead.[24] Wales told Sanger that he wanted a philosopher to run the project.[24] At the time Sanger was still a doctoral student in philosophy at Ohio State University.[33] Seeking employment online, Sanger joined Bomis to start Nupedia.[10] Shortly after obtaining his PhD, he became Nupedia's editor-in-chief.[10]

Wales, who had gotten the idea from DMOZ, wanted it to be a free-content encyclopedia, using volunteer editors.[34] Sanger stated that Wales had a vague notion of what the encyclopedia would be and he did not have detailed suggestions for it.[10] Sanger was largely on his own to design the project.[10] Sanger began to oversee Nupedia in February 2000.[35] He formulated many ideas and policies for Nupedia before it went live on March 9, 2000.[36] He developed a review process for articles and recruited editors.[28] Articles were reviewed through Nupedia's e-mail system before being posted on the site.[30] Several months after the launch of Nupedia in early March 2000, little was accomplished in regards to article growth.[11] With Wales and Sanger frustrated with the slow progress of Nupedia, Sanger proposed a wiki be created to spur article development in January 2001,[11] resulting in the launch of Wikipedia on January 15, 2001.[37] Sanger posted an announcement on the Nupedia mailing list on January 17, 2001: "Wikipedia is up!" he stated.[13] "Humor me. Go there and add a little article. It will take all of five or ten minutes."[13] Wikipedia was initially intended as a collaborative wiki for which the public would write entries that would then be fed into Nupedia's review process but the majority of Nupedia's experts wanted little to do with this project.[note 2][11]

To the surprise of Sanger and Wales, within a few days of launching Wikipedia had outgrown Nupedia and a small community of editors had gathered.[11] Shortly after a wiki was set up Sanger promoted the site in the Nupedia community and other places.[38] Sanger ran the project, and formulated its original set of policies, including "Ignore all rules", "Neutral point of view", "No original research", "Verifiability",[13] and "Be bold".[39] He embraced Wikipedia's encouragement of boldness among its editors, telling users to "not worry about messing up".[40] He created "Brilliant prose" as a way to showcase Wikipedia's highest-quality articles.[41] He also created a "What Wikipedia Is Not" page in order to define what Wikipedia is not, such as it is not a dictionary and not a scientific journal.[11]

Wikipedia grew rapidly, but according to Sanger only months after it was launched things began to go astray.[42] He has stated that by mid-2001, the Wikipedia community was being "overrun" by what he described as "trolls" and "anarchist-types", who were "opposed to the idea that anyone should have any kind of authority that others do not".[42] Sanger responded by proposing a stronger emphasis for expert editors, individuals with the authority to resolve disputes and enforce the rules.[42] In October 2001, the user "The Cunctator" believed in the ideas of "anarchy" and "radical openness".[11] Sanger stated in an electronic mailing list to the Wikipedia community: "I need to be granted fairly broad authority by the community—by you, dear reader—if I am going to do my job effectively."[43] This plea to authority was resisted by The Cunctator and by many editors who believed in the non-centralized, open style principles of Wikipedia.[43] When Sanger tried to step in when he spotted trollish behavior other editors occasionally supported the troll.[44] "Short of removing the problem contributors altogether – which we did only in the very worst cases – there was no easy solution," Sanger stated.[44] Due to the principles of Wikipedia, Sanger was not allowed to maintain any real disciplinary authority.[11]

Sanger was the only paid editor of Nupedia[45] and the only paid editor of Wikipedia.[46] Bomis planned on making Wikipedia profitable or at least pay for the cost of running the site.[47] In early 2002 Bomis announced plans to sell advertising on Wikipedia in part to pay for Sanger's employment, but the project was against any commercialization and the market for Internet advertising was poor at that time.[48] Grappling with diminishing revenue from its investments, Bomis discontinued funding for Sanger's job in February 2002.[49] Following continued disputes with Wales concerning his preference to expunge "trolls" and "anarchist-types" from Wikipedia,[50] Sanger resigned as editor-in-chief of Nupedia and as chief organizer of Wikipedia on March 1, 2002.[51] Sanger said he ended his participation in Wikipedia and Nupedia as a volunteer because he could not do justice to the tasks as a part-timer.[51] Frustrated by sustained content battles and feeling he had a lack of support from Wales, Sanger ended his involvement in the project.[42] He still edited occasionally as a volunteer,[52] but after a few failed attempts to assemble experts to review articles, he eventually left Wikipedia in January 2003.[19]

Sanger attempted to revive Nupedia in 2002 or 2003 as its activity slowed down.[48] He tried to find an organization that would take control of it because it appeared Bomis would be unable to manage it and Wales seemed uninterested in it.[48] Sanger later attempted to purchase the domain and other proprietary materials of Nupedia from Bomis.[48] He said Nupedia was allowed to gradually closedown and that its demise was not entirely due to the inherent inefficiencies in its review process.[48] Sanger has thought that "Wikipedia would be developed together with another more 'mature' encyclopedia, such as Nupedia, that would edit the Wikipedia content and release accurate versions of the entries."[26] Nupedia's server crashed in September 2003 and the site was never relaunched.[53]

Origins of Wikipedia

A screenshot of Wikipedia's main page on September 28, 2002.
A screenshot of Wikipedia's main page on September 28, 2002.

Sanger and Wales were identified as co-founders of Wikipedia by the The New York Times in September 2001.[54] In a Yahoo! Internet forum post, Wales identified himself in August 2002 as co-founder of Wikipedia.[55][56] Wales rewrote content on Wikipedia articles multiples times that described Sanger as co-founder of Wikipedia in 2015.[57] In December 2015 in a post on Wikipedia, Sanger stated Wales was trying to rewrite history by downplaying his involvement.[57] Wales told Wired that he only clarified details about Sanger's contribution to the project and removed factual errors, and said he should not have done so.[57] On his personal website, Sanger posted several links that supported his role as a co-founder.[12] Sanger said: "While I was organizing Wikipedia, Wales was in the background and focused on"[58] Wales stated in 2005 that he had initially heard of the wiki concept in 2001 not from Sanger, but instead from Jeremy Rosenfeld.[58] Wales stated in October 2001 that it was "Larry (who) had the idea to use Wiki software for a separate project."[59][60]

The idea of using a wiki came when Sanger met up with his friend Ben Kovitz,[23] who was moving to the area to start a new job.[61] In Pacific Beach, San Diego they were discussing jobs, techie stuff, and philosophy at a Mexican taco stand.[62] This meeting occurred at a dinner on January 2, 2001, where Sanger was first introduced to the wiki software.[10] Kovitz whom Sanger had known from philosophy mailing lists,[10] was a computer programmer who had come across Ward Cunningham's Wiki.[62] "My exact words were to allow 'any fool in the world with Internet access' to freely modify any page on the site," Kovitz recalls.[63] Sanger had some questions: "Couldn't total idiots put up blatantly false or biased descriptions of things?"[63] Kovitz responded, "Yes, and other idiots could delete those changes or edit them into something better."[63] Sanger thought a wiki would be a good platform to use and hurried back to his apartment to present the idea to Wales.[11] After leaving a voice-mail message, Wales called him back and Sanger explained to him about using a wiki for Nupedia,[62] who agreed to try it, as a kind of lark.[note 3][13] Sanger sent an e-mail to Wales, explaining how it would work, and at the request of Sanger, Wales agreed the software would be installed.[10] Sanger posted an announcement on Nupedia's mailing list on January 10, 2001,[64] under the subject "Let's make a Wiki": "No, this is not an indecent proposal. It's an idea to add a little feature to Nupedia. Jimmy Wales thinks that many people might find the idea objectionable, but I think not."[65]

Sanger stated in 2005 that Wales, along with other people, came up with the broader idea of an open-source, collaborative encyclopedia that would accept contributions from anyone and it was Wales' idea that Bomis invest in it.[39] Sanger came up with the name "Wikipedia",[66] which he later said was "a silly name for what was at first a very silly project".[67] Sanger first conceived of the wiki-based encyclopedia project[11] and he guided it during its first 14 months of development.[10] Sanger served as Wikipedia's "chief organizer".[18] He was in charge of running the day-to-day operations[68] and was in charge of enforcing Wikipedia policies.[31] Sanger discussed with the original programmers, who were working on software that would later be known as MediaWiki, what the requirements were for Wikipedia.[69] In 2009, Sanger told Hot Press that he "introduced the notion that the software should support separate Talk pages: moving discussion of an article away from the article itself and onto a separate page is something I insisted on."[69]

Related to Wikipedia Post-Wikipedia

Since departing from Wikipedia in 2002, Sanger has been critical of its accuracy.[15] In December 2004, Sanger wrote a critical article for the website Kuro5hin, in which he stated that Wikipedia is not perceived as credible among librarians, teachers, and academics when it does not have a formal review process and it is "anti-elitist".[16][70] Shortly after the launch of Citizendium Sanger stated Wikipedia was "broken beyond repair", and had a range of problems "from serious management problems, to an often dysfunctional community, to frequently unreliable content, and to a whole series of scandals".[71] In September 2009, Sanger mentioned one reason for parting ways with Wikipedia: "I thought that the project would never have the amount of credibility it could have if it were not somehow more open and welcoming to experts."[60] He continued: "The other problem was the community had essentially been taken over by trolls to a great extent. That was a real problem, and Jimmy Wales absolutely refused to do anything about it."[60] Wales responded to a request from Internet Evolution by stating, "I think very highly of Larry Sanger, and think that it is unfortunate that this silly debate has tended to overshadow his work."[60] In a 2015 interview by Zach Schwartz for Vice, Sanger said: "I think Wikipedia never solved the problem of how to organize itself in a way that didn't lead to mob rule" and that since he left the project, "People that I would say are trolls sort of took over. The inmates started running the asylum."[10]

In April 2010, Sanger sent a letter to the FBI about his concern that Wikimedia Commons was hosting child pornography in its pedophilia and lolicon categories and later clarified the object of his concern was "obscene visual representations of the abuse of children".[72][73] Sanger said he felt it was his "civic duty" to report the images.[74] In 2012 Sanger told he worked with NetSpark to get them to donate or heavily discount its pornographic image filtering technology for use on Wikipedia.[75] NetSpark attempted to contact the Wikimedia Foundation in July and August 2012, but received no response.[75]

In 2013, The Association for Comprehensive Energy Psychology (ACEP), an alternative medicine non-governmental organization, started a petition on to request Wikipedia to revise their policy.[76] Sanger commented about the petition, stating: "Wikipedia's neutrality policy, at least as I originally articulated it, requires that CAM's practitioners be given an opportunity to explain their views. At the same time, the policy also requires that more space be given to mainstream views that are critical of CAM, precisely because such critical views are held by most medical health professionals."[76]


A screenshot of Citizendium's homepage in 2018 with a layout similar to Wikipedia's homepage, but with a bright green banner asking for donations in the central bottom left.
A screenshot of Citizendium's homepage in 2018.

The issue over the accuracy of Wikipedia's articles led Sanger to unveil plans for a new encyclopedia called Citizendium,[77] a "citizens' compendium of everything".[78] At the Wizards of OS conference in September 2006, Sanger announced Citizendium as a fork of Wikipedia.[79] The objectives of the fork were to address perceived flaws in the way Wikipedia functions.[79] The main differences would be the rejection of anonymous editing: every author/editor would have to be identified by their real name, no "top-down" hierarchy of editors: it would aspire to be a "real encyclopedia".[79] Citizendium was an attempt by Sanger to establish a credible online encyclopedia based on scholarship,[80] aiming to bring more accountability and academic rigor to articles.[81][82] Citizendium is wiki-based, but with a few differences from Wikipedia.[83] Contributors on Citizendium were required to sign in using their real identities in contrast to Wikipedia editors who can remain anonymous.[84][85] The site attempted to implement an expert review process,[86] and experts tried to reach a decision for disputes that cannot be resolved by consensus.[83]

Sanger started a pilot version of Citizendium on October 17, 2006.[87] Citizendium officially launched on March 25, 2007.[58] Sanger stated that the main issue was the advantage that Wikipedia started first.[7] "As long as Wikipedia is a top ten site, it's going to be difficult for a competitor to get any traction," Sanger stated to Ars Technica.[7] After a burst of initial work, however, the site went into decline, and most of the experts were not retained.[88] Ars Technica reporter Timothy B. Lee said in 2011 that Citizendium was "dead in the water".[88] Lee noted that Citizendium's late start was a disadvantage, and that Citizendium's growth was also hindered by an "unwieldy editing model".[88] In 2014, the number of Citizendium contributors was under 100, and the number of edits per day was about "a dozen or so", according to Winthrop University's Dean of Library Services.[89] By August 2016, Citizendium had about 17,000 articles, 160 having undergone expert review.[90]

In early 2007, Sanger announced he did not intend to head Citizendium indefinitely.[87] In early 2009, Sanger effectively ceased to edit Citizendium, although an announcement confirming this was not made until July 30, 2009, on the Citizendium-l mailing list.[91] On September 22, 2010, Sanger stepped down as editor-in-chief of Citizendium but said that he would continue to support the project.[92]

Other projects and later activities

Larry Sanger has been involved with various online encyclopedia projects.[46] In December 2005, the Digital Universe Foundation announced that Sanger had been hired as Director of Distributed Content Programs.[93] He was a key organizer of the Digital Universe Encyclopedia web projects that was launched in early 2006.[94][95] The Digital Universe encyclopedia has recruited recognized experts to write articles, and to check user-submitted articles for accuracy.[96] The first step in this effort was the expert-authored and edited Encyclopedia of Earth,[96] an electronic reference about the Earth.[97] Sanger thought that the pace of content production at the Foundation was too slow for him, and unsuccessfully proposed open content to help push it forward.[98] In December 2010, Sanger said he considered WikiLeaks to be "enemies of the U.S.—not just the government, but the people".[99]

Sanger has worked at the WatchKnowLearn project, a non-profit organization that focuses on educating young children using videos and other media on the web.[18] Sanger was the executive director of the system.[100] It is funded by grants, philanthropists, and the Community Foundation of Northwest Mississippi.[101] Sanger headed the development of WatchKnowLearn from 2009 to 2010.[102] It consists of a repository of educational videos for kindergarten to the 12th grade.[103] In February 2013, it ranked as the No. 1 search result among educational videos on Google's search engine, with page views surmounting 6 million each month.[104] In 2010 and 2011, he continued working on developing a web-based reading-tutorial application for beginning readers which was launched as Reading Bear in 2012.[105][100] It uses the principles of phonics, using multimedia presentations such as videos, PowerPoint presentations, and ebooks.[105] In addition to aiming to teach children to pronounce words, it aims to teach the meaning and context of each word.[105]

In February 2013, Sanger announced a project a crowdsourced news portal called Infobitt; saying on Twitter, "My new project will show the world how to crowdsource high-quality content – a problem I've long wanted to solve. Not a wiki".[106] The site, which aimed to be a crowdsourced news aggregator, went online in December 2014.[107] In July 2015, Sanger announced that the project had run out of money and he had let the programmers go.[108] The site is no longer active.[108]

In December 2017, it was announced that Sanger became the chief information officer of Everipedia.[109] Sanger told Inverse in December 2017 that Everipedia is "going to change the world in a dramatic way, more than Wikipedia did."[110] Sanger said, "Everipedia is the encyclopedia of everything, where topics are unrestricted, unlike on Wikipedia."[111] It is an open encyclopedia contributed by many different editors that uses the blockchain technology.[112]

Sanger views the large tech companies such as Facebook, Google, and Twitter as "deeply intrusive".[113] His approach is to "stop participating" and remove them from his life.[113] In 2019, Sanger no longer uses Google Chrome because it retrieves "massive amounts of information from us via their browser" and he has switched to using Brave browser.[113] Sanger prefers this browser because it "automatically blocks ads, trackers, third-party cookies, encrypts your connections – and, unlike Google, they don't have a profile about you".[113] On July 1, 2019, Sanger advocated for a social media strike to take place on July 4 and 5, to demand that social media platforms be decentralized to their user base from their top level management, in order to have assert control over user data and privacy.[114][115]

On October 18, 2019, he announced that he had resigned from his position at Everipedia and returned his stock holdings in Everipedia without compensation in order to establish the Knowledge Standards Foundation and develop the website Encyclosphere.[8] Explaining the venture, Sanger said, "We need to do for encyclopedias what blogging standards did for blogs: there needs to be an 'Encyclosphere.' We should build a totally decentralized network, like the Blogosphere—or like email, IRC, blockchains, and the World Wide Web itself."[8] Sanger is the executive director of the Knowledge Standards Foundation.[116]

Personal life

In February 2000, when he was hired by Wales to develop Nupedia, Sanger moved to San Diego.[117] He was married in Las Vegas, in December 2001.[118] In January 2002, he returned to Columbus, Ohio, to teach philosophy at the Ohio State University.[119] In 2005 he and his wife moved to Santa Cruz, California to work for Digital Universe.[120] He resides in Columbus, Ohio with his wife and two boys.[121]

Sanger supports the concept of baby reading.[122] He starting to teach his son to read before his second birthday, and has posted videos online to demonstration this.[122] "By 25 months he could read brand-new words he had never seen," Sanger stated.[123] In his leisure time, he has played the fiddle and has taught Irish traditional music.[119] He has studied Ruby on Rails and JavaScript programming.[124]

See also

Selected writings and interviews

Academic work
  • Epistemic Circularity: An Essay on the Problem of Meta-Justification – doctoral thesis.
  • Descartes' methods and their theoretical background – bachelor thesis.
  • Why Neutrality?. Ballotpedia, December 2015.
  • How and Why I Taught My Toddler to Read (PDF)., December 2010.
  • Individual Knowledge in the Internet Age. Educause Review, April 2010.
  • Who Says We Know: On The New Politics of Knowledge. Edge Foundation – Edge Reality Club, April 2007.
  • Humanity's Coming Enlightenment. (Archived) Edge Foundation – World Question Center, 2007.
  • Sanger, Lawrence M. (2012). "The Fate of Expertise after Wikipedia". Episteme. 6 (1): 52–73. doi:10.3366/E1742360008000543.


  1. A general overview of Nupedia's editorial process in 2001: "A writer (often, and as appropriate, an expert on the topic) asks the editor to be assigned a given topic, or an editor asks someone to write on it. The topic is assigned (step one, assignment) and the writer goes to work. The article is also assigned a 'lead reviewer' (step two, finding a lead reviewer) and there is a 'blind review' exchange between this initial, lead reviewer and the writer (step three, lead review). The resulting draft article is posted on the relevant review group (or, in some cases, groups); peer reviewers suggest revisions (step four, open review). When approved by the peer reviewers and subject editor, the article is then forwarded for copyediting by two copyeditors who are assigned by the author (step five, lead copyediting). After the article has been checked and revised for good grammar, usage, etc., the completed article is posted publicly for a final, 'open' copyediting by anyone interested (step six, open copyediting). The final product is then approved by the relevant area editor and the article is marked-up so that it is properly presented on the website (step seven, final approval and markup). Then the article is made 'live', i.e., posted as a completed article on the website."[29]
  2. In 2006, The Atlantic Monthly's Marshall Poe stated that "Wales and Sanger created the first Nupedia wiki on January 10, 2001. The initial purpose was to get the public to add entries that would then be 'fed into the Nupedia process' of authorization. Most of Nupedia's expert volunteers, however, wanted nothing to do with this, so Sanger decided to launch a separate site called 'Wikipedia'. Neither Sanger nor Wales looked on Wikipedia as anything more than a lark. This is evident in Sanger's flip announcement of Wikipedia to the Nupedia discussion list. 'Humor me,' he wrote. 'Go there and add a little article. It will take all of five or ten minutes.' And, to Sanger's surprise, go they did. Within a few days, Wikipedia outstripped Nupedia in terms of quantity, if not quality, and a small community developed. In late January, Sanger created a Wikipedia discussion list (Wikipedia-L) to facilitate discussion of the project."[11]
  3. In 2006, The Atlantic Monthly's Marshall Poe stated that "Over tacos that night, Sanger explained his concerns about Nupedia's lack of progress, the root cause of which was its serial editorial system. As Nupedia was then structured, no stage of the editorial process could proceed before the previous stage was completed. Kovitz brought up the wiki and sketched out 'wiki magic', the mysterious process by which communities with common interests work to improve wiki pages by incremental contributions. If it worked for the rambunctious hacker culture of programming, Kovitz said, it could work for any online collaborative project. The wiki could break the Nupedia bottleneck by permitting volunteers to work simultaneously all over the project. With Kovitz in tow, Sanger rushed back to his apartment and called Wales to share the idea. Over the next few days he wrote a formal proposal for Wales and started a page on Cunningham's wiki called 'WikiPedia.'"[11]


  1. Western History for Kids, Part 1 – ancient and medieval – Sanger Academy on YouTube, video taken from Sanger's official educational YouTube channel, pronunciation confirmed around 0:10, May 7, 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Anderson, p. 20
  3. Denis OmelchenkoRead (May 27, 2019). "Wikipedia Co-Founder: Blockchain Gives Us Opportunity to Control Over Relationships". Ihodl.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Volpicelli, Gian (April 16, 2019). "Wikipedia's Jimmy Wales wanted to save journalism. He didn't". Wired News.
  5. McCarthy, Caroline (January 23, 2007). "Citizendium: Wikipedia co-founder Sanger's Wikipedia rival". CNET News.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Chillingworth, Mark (November 27, 2006). "Expert edition". Information World Review. Archived from the original on October 16, 2008.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Anderson, Nate (November 21, 2007). "Larry Sanger says "tipping point" approaching for expert-guided Citizendium wiki". Ars Technica.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Sanger, Larry (October 18, 2019). "Introducing the Encyclosphere". Larry Larry Sanger.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 Roush, Wade (January 1, 2005). "Larry Sanger's Knowledge Free-for-All". Technology Review.
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 Schwartz, Zach (November 11, 2015). "Wikipedia's Co-Founder Is Wikipedia's Most Outspoken Critic". Vice.
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Bergstein, Brian (March 25, 2007). "Sanger says he co-started Wikipedia". Associated Press.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Schiff, Stacy (July 31, 2006). "Know It All". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on November 22, 2008.
  14. "How Wikipedia wooed and won the world". NDTV. January 12, 2011.
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Wikipedia founder sets up rival". Australian IT. October 19, 2006.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Sanger, Larry (December 31, 2004). "Why Wikipedia Must Jettison Its Anti-Elitism". Kuro5hin. Archived from the original on January 5, 2005. {{cite news}}: Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  17. Olsen, Stefanie (October 17, 2006). "Wikipedia co-founder plans 'expert' rival". CNET News.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 Sawers, Paul (November 19, 2011). "Larry Sanger on co-founding Wikipedia and how online education could change the world". The Next Web.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Lydgate, Chris (June 2010). "Deconstructing Wikipedia". Reed Magazine.
  20. Anderson, p. 21
  21. Boraas, Alan (September 2, 2006). "Hometown kid an Internet revolutionary". Anchorage Daily News. Archived from the original on October 10, 2007.
  22. Sanger, Larry (August 30, 1995). "Tutor-L: Higher education outside the universities". Archived from the original on November 23, 2009.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Moody, Glyn (July 13, 2006). "This time, it'll be a Wikipedia written by experts". The Guardian.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 Lih, p. 33
  25. Aviv, Rachel (January 3, 2006). "Mondo Wikipedia". The Village Voice.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Betz, Lindsay (May 31, 2007). "Wikipedia formed by former Buckeye". The Lantern.
  27. Keen, Andrew (June 2, 2008). "Andrew Keen on New Media". The Independent.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Gouthro, Liane (March 14, 2000). "Building the world's biggest encyclopedia". PC World.
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External links