|Examples of tics|
|Symptoms||Sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic movements or sounds|
|Usual onset||Around 5 years old|
|Types||Tourette disorder, persistent tic disorder, provisional tic disorder, other specified and unspecified tic disorders|
|Risk factors||Family history|
|Diagnostic method||Based on symptoms after ruling out other similar conditions|
|Differential diagnosis||ADHD, myoclonus, cocaine intoxication, Huntington disease, postviral encephalitis|
|Treatment||Education and reassurance|
|Frequency||Up to 4%|
Tic disorders are a group of disorders that present with either motor or vocal tics. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic movements or sounds. They can vary from simple blinking to more complex such as speaking a group of words. In tic disorders this occur repeatedly. They can often be consciously stopped for a period of time. Complications may include psychological distress.
There are four types: Tourette disorder, persistent tic disorder, provisional tic disorder, and other specified and unspecified tic disorders. They represent different severities with Tourette's being the most severe. The first three by definition, have an onset before the age of 18.
Risk factors include family history. Associated condition include ADHD, obsessive compulsive disorder, and depression. Episodes may be triggered by stress, excitement, or lack of sleep. Diagnosis is based on symptoms after ruling out other conditions that may present similarly. Similar conditions include ADHD, myoclonus, cocaine intoxication, Huntington disease, or postviral encephalitis.
Most cases can be managed with education and reassurance. Occasionally behavioral therapy or medication may be used. Tic disorders affect up to 4% of people, while Tourette's affects about 1 in 200 school aged children. Males are affected about 3 times as often as females. Onset is often around 5 years of age, is most severe around 11 years of age, and gets better in later childhood. Those with mild to moderate tics generally have good outcomes.
The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published in May 2013, classifies Tourette syndrome and tic disorders as motor disorders listed in the neurodevelopmental disorder category.
Tic disorders, in ascending order of severity, are:
- 307.20 Other specified tic disorder (specify reason)
- 307.20 Unspecified tic disorder
- 307.21 Provisional tic disorder
- 307.22 Persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder (specify motor or vocal)
- 307.23 Tourette's disorder
- F95.0 Transient tic disorder
- F95.1 Chronic motor or vocal tic disorder
- F95.2 Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder [Gilles de la Tourette]
- F95.8 Other tic disorders
- F95.9 Tic disorder, unspecified
Education, and a "watch and wait" strategy, are the only treatment needed for many, and the majority of individuals with tics do not seek treatment. When needed, management of tic disorders is similar to management of Tourette syndrome.
Tic disorders are more common among males than females.
At least one in five children experience some form of tic disorder, most frequently between the ages of seven and twelve. As many as 1 in 100 people may experience some form of tic disorder, usually before the onset of puberty. Tourette syndrome is the more severe expression of a spectrum of tic disorders, which are thought to be due to the same genetic vulnerability. Nevertheless, most cases of Tourette syndrome are not severe. Although a significant amount of investigative work indicates genetic linkage of the various tic disorders, further study is needed to confirm the relationship.
- Transient tic disorder consisted of multiple motor and/or phonic tics with duration of at least 4 weeks, but less than 12 months.
- Chronic tic disorder was either single or multiple motor or phonic tics, but not both, which were present for more than a year.
- Tourette syndrome was diagnosed when both motor and phonic tics were present for more than a year.
- Tic disorder NOS was diagnosed when tics were present, but did not meet the criteria for any specific tic disorder.
DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5
- The word stereotyped was removed from tic definition: stereotypies and stereotypic movement disorder are frequently misdiagnosed as tics or Tourette syndrome. The definition of tic was made consistent for all tic disorders, and the word stereotyped was removed to help distinguish between stereotypies (common in autism spectrum disorders) and tic disorders.
- Provisional tic disorder approximately replaced transient tic disorder: because initially presenting tics may eventually be diagnosed as chronic tic disorder or Tourette's, transient suggested it could only be defined in retrospect (though that perception did not follow the DSM-IV-TR definition). The term provisional "satisfies experts with a more systematic epidemiological approach to disorders", but should not imply that treatment might not be called for.
- Differentiation of chronic motor or vocal tic disorder: DSM-5 added a specifier to distinguish between vocal and motor tics that are chronic. This distinction was added because higher rates of comorbid diagnoses are present with vocal tics relative to motor tics.
- Now includes as Tourette's Disorder patients with tics who experienced a 3-month or longer remission since the first tic, as long as the first tic was at least a year ago.
- Stimulant use as a cause removed: there is no evidence that the use of stimulants causes tic disorders.
- New categories, Other specified and Unspecified: for tic disorders that result in significant impairment to the individual yet do not meet the full criteria for other tic disorders. The new categories account for tics with onset in adulthood, or tics triggered by other medical conditions or illicit drug use.
- American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 81–85. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
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