Renpenning's syndrome

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Renpenning's syndrome
X-linked recessive.svg
Renpenning's syndrome is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner.

Renpenning's syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder recognised in males that causes intellectual disability, mild growth retardation with examples in the testes and head, and a somewhat short stature. The condition only affects males, starting at birth.

Signs and symptoms

Left,middle) Images show microcephaly, central balding, and up-slanting palpebral fissures right)squarish facial configuration, short philtrum

People with Renpenning's typically begin learning language at an ordinary pace, but by the age of 3–4 they experience a regression in mental and physical development, such as mild low muscle tone resulting in elongated faces and rapid loss in the normal growth of the head (microcephaly). Small testes and short stature are also known to commonly occur.


It is associated with mutations in the PQBP1 gene.[1] The gene product is a polyglutamine-binding protein involved in transcription and pre-mRNA splicing. The gene itself is located on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp11.23). The most common mutations causing this condition occur in exon 4.


This diagnosis may be suspected on clinical grounds but should be confirmed by sequencing the PQBP1 gene.


There is no specific or curative treatment for this condition at present. Management is supportive


This condition normally only occurs in males but a case in a female has been reported.[2]


This condition was first characterized in 1962.[3] and later described by Hans Renpenning in 1963 after he documented these traits on many children in one family alone.

See also


  1. Martínez-Garay I, Tomás M, Oltra S, et al. (January 2007). "A two base pair deletion in the PQBP1 gene is associated with microphthalmia, microcephaly, and mental retardation". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 15 (1): 29–34. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201717. PMID 17033686.
  2. Cho RY, Peñaherrera MS, Du Souich C, Huang L, Mwenifumbo J, Nelson TN, Elliott AM, Adam S, Eydoux P, Yang GX, Chijiwa C, Van Allen MI, Friedman JM, Robinson WP, Lehman A (2019) Renpenning syndrome in a female. Am J Med Genet A
  3. RENPENNING H, GERRARD JW, ZALESKI WA, TABATA T (November 1962). "Familial sex-linked mental retardation". Can Med Assoc J. 87: 954–6. PMC 1849750. PMID 13981686.

External links