Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis

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Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis
Other names: Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO)
a-d)Wedge-shaped deformity is observed in the 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th thoracic vertebrae and the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae.

Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO; also known as pregnancy-related osteoporosis) is a rare early presentation of osteoporosis in which young women experience low trauma or spontaneous fractures during or soon after pregnancy or lactation.[citation needed]

Fragility fractures of the spine are most commonly described, but the condition can be associated with other types of fracture.[1][2] The symptoms usually appear during or after a first pregnancy with the most common complaint being severe back pain[3]

The exact causes of the disease are not yet known, and most women with PLO have no known predisposing cause of osteoporosis or bone fragility.[4]

PLO with vertebral fractures is more likely in older and thinner pregnant women during their first pregnancy.[5]


  1. Kovacs C. S. (2014). "Osteoporosis presenting in pregnancy, puerperium, and lactation". Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity. 21 (6): 468–475. doi:10.1097/MED.0000000000000102. PMID 25191853. S2CID 205791278.
  2. Kyverntinakis I.; et al. (2018). "Subsequent fracture risk of women with pregnancy and lactation associated osteoporosis after a median of 6 years of follow up". Osteoporosis International. 29 (1): 135–142. doi:10.1007/s00198-017-4239-1. PMID 28965212. S2CID 29490167.
  3. Smith R.; et al. (1995). "Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis". Q J Med. 88 (12): 865–887. PMID 8593546.
  4. Dunne F.; et al. (1993). "Pregnancy associated osteoporosis". Clin Endocrinol. 39 (4): 487–490. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.1993.tb02398.x. PMID 8287577. S2CID 72977666.
  5. Qian, Ying; Wang, Lei; Yu, Lili; Huang, Weimin (2021-11-03). "Pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis with vertebral fractures: a systematic review". BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 22 (1): 926. doi:10.1186/s12891-021-04776-7. ISSN 1471-2474. PMC 8567545. PMID 34732196.