Painful bruising syndrome

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Painful bruising syndrome
Other names: GDS[1]
Gardner-Diamond Syndrome-autoerythrocyte sensitization test (left & right panel) - a) Normal saline b) autologous washed red blood cells 40% c) autologous washed red blood cells 80%

Painful bruising syndrome (also known as "autoerythrocyte sensitization", "Gardner–Diamond syndrome", and "psychogenic purpura") is an idiopathic trauma-induced condition seen in young to middle-aged women who sometimes manifest personality disorders.[2]: 829  It is characterized by a distinctive localized purpuric reaction occurring primarily on the legs, face and trunk, with recurring painful ecchymoses variably accompanied by syncope, nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding.[3]

Patients with this condition can suffer frequent painful bruising around joints and muscles. Because of the rarity of the disorder, there are few methods of support in place for patients.[4]

Many patients are labelled with the stigma of having a psychological condition without this having a specifically proven link. There have been cases of painful bruising syndrome reported where there are no additional psychological disorders. This has been known to be put into remission with chemotherapy. It was characterized in 1955 by Frank Gardner and Louis Diamond.[5][6]

Patient may present with a history of intermittent purpura mostly precipitated by stress.[citation needed]

See also


  1. RESERVED, INSERM US14-- ALL RIGHTS. "Orphanet: Autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome". Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  2. James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6.
  3. Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1.
  4. Ivanov, OL; Lvov, AN; Michenko, AV; Künzel, J; Mayser, P; Gieler, U (2009). "Autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome (Gardner-Diamond syndrome): review of the literature**". Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 23 (5): 499–504. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2009.03096.x. ISSN 0926-9959. PMID 19192020.
  5. synd/3229 at Who Named It?
  6. GARDNER FH, DIAMOND LK (July 1955). "Autoerythrocyte sensitization; a form of purpura producing painful bruising following autosensitization to red blood cells in certain women". Blood. 10 (7): 675–90. PMID 14389381. Archived from the original on 2020-01-27. Retrieved 2020-12-10.

Further reading

  • Panconesi, E., & Hautmann, G. (1995). Stress, Stigmatization and Psychosomatic Purpuras. International Angiology 14: 130–137.
  • Yuecel, B., Kiziltan, E., & Aktan, M. (2000). Dissociative Identity Disorder Presenting With Psychogenic Purpura. Psychosomatics 41: 279–281.

External links

External resources