Ligneous conjunctivitis

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Ligneous conjunctivitis
Other names: Conjunctivitis lignosa[1]
Ligneous conjunctivitis with dense membrane

Ligneous conjunctivitis is a rare form of chronic conjunctivitis characterized by recurrent, fibrin-rich pseudomembranous lesions of wood-like consistency that develop mainly on the underside of the eyelid (tarsal conjunctiva).[2] It is generally a systemic disease which may involve the periodontal tissue, the upper and lower respiratory tract, kidneys, middle ear, and female genitalia.[3] It can be sight-threatening,[3] and death can occasionally occur from pulmonary involvement.[citation needed]

It has been speculated hola ligneous conjunctivitis may be a manifestation of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) involving the conjunctiva.[4]

Signs and symptoms

The clinical presentation of this condition is as follows:[5]


Histopathological findings from affected humans indicate that wound healing is impaired due to a deficiency in plasmin-mediated extracellular fibrinolysis.[2] Episodes may be triggered by minor trauma, eye surgery, or by systemic events such as infections or antifibrinolytic therapy.[3] Histology shows amorphous subepithelial deposits of eosinophilic material consisting predominantly of fibrin.[clarification needed]


The diagnosis of this condition is based on recurrence and clinical appearance[5]

Differential diagnosis

The DDx of this condition is via the following:[5]


Ligneous conjunctivitis may be managed by topical treatments of plasminogen,[2] topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma,[2] and fibrinolytic therapy.[6]


  1. RESERVED, INSERM US14-- ALL RIGHTS. "Orphanet: Ligneous conjunctivitis". Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Schuster, V.; Seregard, S. (2003). "Ligneous conjunctivitis". Survey of Ophthalmology. 48 (4): 369–388. doi:10.1016/s0039-6257(03)00056-0. PMID 12850227.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Ligneous conjunctivitis". Orphanet. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
  4. Chiang Wei-Yu; iu Ting-Ting; Huang Wan-Ting; Kuo Ming-Tse (9 September 2016). "Co-existing ligneous conjunctivitis and IgG4-related disease". Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 64 (7): 532–534. doi:10.4103/0301-4738.190154. PMC 5026081. PMID 27609168. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 "Ligneous Conjunctivitis - EyeWiki". Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  6. "Ligneous Conjunctivitis". Ocular Pathology. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2012.

External links

External resources