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Targets for immunomodulation[1]

Immunomodulation is modulation (regulatory adjustment) of the immune system[2].It has natural and human-induced forms, and thus the word can refer to the following:

  • Homeostasis in the immune system, whereby the system self-regulates to adjust immune responses to adaptive rather than maladaptive levels (using regulatory T cells, cell signaling molecules, and so forth)
  • Immunomodulation as part of immunotherapy, in which immune responses are induced, amplified, attenuated, or prevented according to therapeutic goals


  1. Janssen, Malou; Endeman, Henrik; Bos, Lieuwe D. J. (1 April 2023). "Targeted immunomodulation: a primer for intensivists". Intensive Care Medicine. 49 (4): 462–464. doi:10.1007/s00134-023-07009-8. ISSN 1432-1238.
  2. Strzelec, Martyna; Detka, Jan; Mieszczak, Patrycja; Sobocińska, Małgorzata Katarzyna; Majka, Marcin (9 March 2023). "Immunomodulation—a general review of the current state-of-the-art and new therapeutic strategies for targeting the immune system". Frontiers in Immunology. 14: 1127704. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2023.1127704. ISSN 1664-3224. Archived from the original on 28 January 2024. Retrieved 26 January 2024.

Further reading