|The glenoid labrum, labeled glenoid ligament, is damaged in a Bankart lesion. Side view demonstrating the articular surface of the right scapula is shown.|
|Types||Variations: Anterior labroligamentous periostous sleeve avulsion lesion (ALPSA), reverse Bankart lesion|
|Treatment||Medical imaging; X-ray, CT scan, MRI scan|
A Bankart lesion is a type of shoulder injury that occurs following a dislocated shoulder. The anterior (inferior) glenoid labrum of the shoulder detaches. When this happens, a pocket at the front of the glenoid forms that allows the humeral head to come out of the shoulder joint. There is not always a fracture. Other variations include anterior labroligamentous periostous sleeve avulsion lesion (ALPSA), and reverse Bankart lesion.
The diagnosis is usually initially made by a combination of physical exam and medical imaging, where the latter may be projectional radiography (in cases of bony Bankart) and/or MRI of the shoulder. The presence of intra-articular contrast allows for better evaluation of the glenoid labrum. Type V SLAP tears extends into the Bankart defect.
Arthroscopic repair of Bankart injuries have good success rates, though nearly one-third of patients require further surgery for continued instability after the initial procedure in a study of young adults, with higher re-operation rates in those less than 20 years of age. Options for repair include an arthroscopic technique or a more invasive open Latarjet procedure, with the open technique tending to have a lower incidence of recurrent dislocation, but also a reduced range of motion following surgery.
X-ray at left shows anterior dislocation in a young man after trying to get up from his bed. X-ray at right shows same shoulder after reduction and internal rotation, revealing both a bony Bankart lesion and a Hill-Sachs lesion.
CT scan showing a bony Bankart lesion at the antero-inferior glenoid
Bankart lesion seen at arthroscopy
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