Weber test

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Weber test.
Weber Test.jpg

The Weber test is a hearing test that uses a tuning fork to assess hearing loss in one ear.[1] It requires placing a vibrating tuning fork on the top of the head and asking whether the sound is heard more loudly in the left or right ear or in the middle.[1] It is typically used alongside the Rinne test to distinguish between conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, in which the Weber test demonstrates a louder sound in the better ear.[1]

Weber test performance

The Weber and the Rinne test[2] are typically performed together with the results of each combined to determine the location and nature of any hearing losses detected. In the Weber test a vibrating tuning fork (Typically 256 Hz [3] or 512 Hz [4] used for Weber vibration test; 512 Hz used for Rinne hearing test) is placed in the middle of the forehead, above the upper lip under the nose over the teeth, or on top of the head equidistant from the patient's ears on top of thin skin in contact with the bone. The patient is asked to report in which ear the sound is heard louder. A normal Weber test has a patient reporting the sound heard equally in both sides. In an affected patient, if the defective ear hears the Weber tuning fork louder, the finding indicates a conductive hearing loss in the defective ear. Also in the affected patient, if the normal ear hears the tuning fork sound better, there is sensorineural hearing loss on the other (defective) ear. However, this assumes that it is known which ear is defective and which is normal (e.g. by the patient telling the clinician that they cannot hear as well in one ear as in the other), with the testing is being done to characterize the type, conductive or sensorineural, of hearing loss that is occurring. In the case where the patient is unaware or has acclimated to their hearing loss, the clinician has to use the Rinne test in conjunction with the Weber to characterize and localize any deficits. That is, an abnormal Weber test is only able to tell the clinician that there is a conductive loss in the ear which hears better or that there is a sensorineural loss in the ear which does not hear as well.

For the Rinne test, a vibrating tuning fork (typically 512 Hz) is placed initially on the mastoid process behind each ear until sound is no longer heard. Then, without re-striking the fork, the fork is then quickly placed just outside the ear with the patient asked to report when the sound caused by the vibration is no longer heard. A normal or positive Rinne test is when sound is still heard when the tuning fork is moved to air near the ear (air conduction or AC), indicating that AC is equal or greater than (bone conduction or BC). Therefore, AC > BC; which is how it is reported clinically for a normal or positive Rinne result. In conductive hearing loss, bone conduction is better than air or BC > AC, a negative Rinne, and the patient will report that they do not hear the fork once it is moved. The Rinne test is not ideal for distinguishing sensorineural hearing loss, as both sensorineural hearing loss and normal hearing report a positive Rinne test (though the sensorineural patient will have a decreased duration of hearing sound once the fork is moved to air).

In a normal patient, the Weber tuning fork sound is heard equally loudly in both ears, with no one ear hearing the sound louder than the other (lateralization). Similarly, a patient with symmetrical hearing loss will hear the Weber tuning fork sound equally well, with diagnostic utility only in asymmetric (one-sided) hearing losses. In a patient with hearing loss, the Weber tuning fork sound is heard louder in one ear (lateralization) than the other. This clinical finding should be confirmed by repeating the procedure and having the patient occlude one ear with a finger; the sound should be heard best in the occluded ear.

The results of both tests are noted and compared accordingly below to localize and characterize the nature of any detected hearing losses. Note: the Weber and Rinne are screening tests that are not replacements for formal audiometry hearing tests. Reported test accuracy measurements are very variable for clinical screening, surgical candidacy assessments, and estimation of hearing loss severity.[5][6]

Weber test

Rinne test
lateralizes to left no lateralization lateralizes to right
left ear right ear left ear right ear both ears left ear right ear
Normal SN loss Normal SN loss Normal
SN loss
Conductive loss Normal (no such condition) Combined loss Normal
Normal Combined loss Normal Conductive loss
Conductive loss Combined loss Conductive loss Combined loss Conductive loss
SN loss = Sensorineural loss, Combined loss = Conductive & Sensorineural loss

Detection of air conductive hearing loss

A patient with a unilateral conductive hearing loss would hear the tuning fork loudest in the affected ear. This is because the ear with the conductive hearing loss is only receiving input from the bone conduction and no air conduction, and the sound is perceived as louder in that ear.[7] This finding is because the conduction problem of the middle ear (incus, malleus, stapes, and external auditory meatus) masks the ambient noise of the room, while the well-functioning inner ear (cochlea with its basilar membrane) picks the sound up via the bones of the skull, causing it to be perceived as a louder sound in the affected ear. Another theory, however, is based on the occlusion effect described by Tonndorf et al. in 1966. Lower frequency sounds (as made by the 256 Hz fork) that are transferred through the bone to the ear canal escape from the canal. If an occlusion is present, the sound cannot escape and appears louder on the ear with the conductive hearing loss.[8]

Conductive hearing loss can be mimicked by plugging one ear with a finger and performing the Rinne and Weber tests, which will help clarify the above. Humming a constant note and then plugging one ear is a good way to mimic the findings of the Weber test in conductive hearing loss. The simulation of the Weber test is the basis for the Bing test.

Detection of sensorineural hearing loss

If air conduction is intact on both sides (therefore no CHL), the patient will report a quieter sound in the ear with the sensorineuronal hearing loss. This is because the ear with the sensorineuronal hearing loss is not converting input from either the air or bone conduction, and the sound is perceived as louder in the normal ear.[7]

Considerations and limitations

This Weber test is most useful in individuals with hearing that is different between the two ears. It cannot confirm normal hearing because it does not measure sound sensitivity in a quantitative manner. Hearing defects affecting both ears equally, as in presbycusis will produce an apparently normal test result.

Weber test considerations The Weber test reflects conduction loss in the ipsilateral ear because, in the event of impaired conduction, ipsilateral sensorineural hearing is perceived as louder; this is the same reason humming becomes more salient when covering the ears. If the Weber-lateralized ear has a positive Rinne test (AC>BC), that generally means the absence of conduction loss in that ear, and the reason sound had been perceived as louder on that side is because a sensorineural loss is present contralaterally; an ipsilateral negative Rinne test (BC>AC), on the other hand, would confirm ipsilateral conductive hearing loss (although contralateral sensorineural hearing loss may still be present. If the Weber-lateralized ear has a positive Rinne test and the contralateral ear has a negative Rinne test, then both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss are present in the contralateral ear. This is because sensorineural deficits always take auditory precedence over conductive ones, so even though conductive hearing loss is present in the contralateral ear, it is the sensorineural deficit that is responsible for the ipsilateral perceived elevation of volume. This also means that a Weber-lateralized ear with bilateral negative-Rinne corresponds to only sensorineural hearing on the ipsilateral side not being affected.

Rinne test considerations Although no replacement for formal audiometry, a quick screening test can be made by complementing the Weber test with the Rinne test.

The Rinne test is used in cases of unilateral hearing loss and establishes which ear has the greater bone conduction. Combined with the patient's perceived hearing loss, it can be determined if the cause is sensorineural or conductive. For example, if the Rinne test shows that air conduction (AC) is greater than bone conduction (BC) in both ears and the Weber test lateralizes to a particular ear, then there is sensorineural hearing loss in the opposite (weaker) ear. Conductive hearing loss is confirmed in the weaker ear if bone conduction is greater than air conduction and the Weber test lateralizes to that side. Combined hearing loss is likely if the Weber test lateralizes to the stronger ear and bone conduction is greater than air conduction in the weaker ear.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Wahid, Nur Wahidah B.; Hogan, Christopher J.; Attia, Maximos (2022). "Weber Test". StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. PMID 30252391.
  2. Vaswani, Ravi; Parikh, Leena; Udochi, Njideka; Vaswani, Surender K. (2008-10-10). "Rinne test modified to quantify hearing". Southern Medical Journal. 101 (1): 107–108. doi:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e31815d3d4d. ISSN 1541-8243. PMID 18176307.
  3. "The Ear and Auditory System". Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. Butterworths. 1990. ISBN 9780409900774. Archived from the original on 2022-07-24. Retrieved 2022-04-14.
  4. "Understanding Hearing & Balance". Archived from the original on 2015-10-07. Retrieved 2022-04-14.
  5. Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Li, Bin; Adams, Meredith E. (2018-08-08). "Diagnostic Accuracy of Tuning Fork Tests for Hearing Loss: A Systematic Review". Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. 159 (2): 220–230. doi:10.1177/0194599818770405. ISSN 1097-6817. PMID 29661046. S2CID 4952175.
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named pmid16434632
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Deciphering the Weber and Rinne Tuning Fork Tests". Archived from the original on 2014-06-09.
  8. Mbubaegbu CE (November 2002). "Weber's test demystified. Physics renders Weber's test not so mysterious . ". BMJ. 325 (7372): 1117. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7372.1117. PMC 1124596. PMID 12424184.

See also