Visceral larva migrans

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Visceral larva migrans
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a-c)Sonography images of male child diagnosed with hepatic visceral larva migrans

Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is a condition in humans caused by the migratory larvae of certain nematodes, humans being a dead-end host, and was first reported in 1952.[1] Nematodes causing such zoonotic infections are Baylisascaris procyonis,[2] Toxocara canis,[3] Toxocara cati,[3] and Ascaris suum.[4] These nematodes can infect but not mature in humans and after migrating through the intestinal wall, travel with the blood stream to various organs where they cause inflammation and damage. Affected organs can include the liver, heart (causing myocarditis) and the CNS (causing dysfunction, seizures, and coma). A special variant is ocular larva migrans where usually T. canis larvae travel to the eye.

Only a few roundworm eggs are necessary to cause larva migrans in the human child or adult. However, visceral larva migrans seems to affect children aged 1–4 more often while ocular larva migrans more frequently affects children aged 7–8. Between 4.6% and 23% of U.S. children have been infected with the dog roundworm egg. This number is much higher in other parts of the world, such as Colombia, where up to 81% of children have been infected.[5]

Cutaneous larva migrans is a condition where nematodes such as Ancylostoma braziliense migrate to the skin.

A list of causative agents of larva migrans syndromes is not agreed upon and varies with the author.[6]

Signs and Symptoms are consistent with fever, hepatomegaly, leucocytosis, coughing [7]

See also


  1. Beaver, P. C.; Snyder, C. H.; Carrera, G. M.; Dent, J. H.; Lafferty, J. W. (1952). "Chronic eosinophilia due to visceral larva migrans; report of three cases". Pediatrics. 9 (1): 7–19. PMID 14911260.
  2. Gavin, P. J.; Kazacos, K. R.; Shulman, S. T. (2005). "Baylisascariasis". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 18 (4): 703–18. doi:10.1128/CMR.18.4.703-718.2005. PMC 1265913. PMID 16223954.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Beaver, PC (1959). "Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans". Public Health Reports. 74 (4): 328–32. doi:10.2307/4590442. JSTOR 4590442. PMC 1929226. PMID 13645880.
  4. Sakai, S.; Shida, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Yabuuchi, H.; Soeda, H.; Okafuji, T.; Hatakenaka, M.; Honda, H. (2006). "Pulmonary Lesions Associated with Visceral Larva Migrans Due to Ascaris suum or Toxocara canis: Imaging of Six Cases". American Journal of Roentgenology. 186 (6): 1697–1702. doi:10.2214/AJR.04.1507. PMID 16714661.
  5. Artem Cheprasov. 2012. Death at the Playground. Guru Magazine. 11. pp. 59-61.
  6. Iowa State University (May 2005). "Larva migrans" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on October 8, 2010. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
  7. "Visceral Larva Migrans - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics".

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External resources