Video:Mosquito-borne disease

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Description

Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes. Nearly 700 million people get a mosquito-borne illness each year resulting in over 725 thousand deaths.[1][2]

Type 1

In terms of parasites, the female mosquito of the genus Anopheles may carry the malaria parasite. Four different species of protozoa cause malaria: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium vivax[3] .

Type 2

The viral diseases yellow fever, dengue fever, Zika fever and chikungunya are transmitted mostly by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.[4]

Type 3

Some species of mosquito can carry the filariasis worm, a parasite that causes a disfiguring condition, often referred to as elephantiasis characterized by a great swelling of several parts of the body; worldwide, around 40 million people are living with a filariasis disability.[5][6]

Type 4

Botflies are known to parasitize humans or other mammalians, causing myiasis, and to use mosquitoes as intermediate vector agents to deposit eggs on a host. The human botfly Dermatobia hominis attaches its eggs to the underside of a mosquito, and when the mosquito takes a blood meal from a human or an animal, the body heat of the mammalian host causes hatching of the larvae.[7][8]

Presentation

Since several different pathogens can be carried by a mosquito, hence there are many different possible symptoms, dependant on its origin. Having clarified this, there are some common symptoms which do exist and they are as follows, fever , headache, nausea , vomiting and rash.[9]

Transmission

A mosquito's period of feeding is often undetected; the bite only becomes apparent because of the immune reaction it provokes. When a mosquito bites a human, it injects saliva and anti-coagulants. For any given individual, with the initial bite there is no reaction but with subsequent bites the body's immune system develops antibodies and a bite becomes inflamed and itchy within a day. This is the usual reaction in young children. With more bites, the sensitivity of the human immune system increases, and an itchy red hive appears in minutes where the immune response has broken capillary blood vessels and fluid has collected under the skin. [10][11][12]

Mechanism

Mosquitoes carrying such arboviruses stay healthy because their immune systems recognizes the virions as foreign particles and "chop off" the virus' genetic coding, rendering it inert. Human infection with a mosquito-borne virus occurs when a female mosquito bites someone while its immune system is still in the process of destroying the virus's harmful coding.[13][14]

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of mosquito-borne diseases often involves a combination of clinical evaluation and specific diagnostic tests, one common method is a blood test.[15]

Prevention 1

Arboviruses do not have a vaccine, the only exception is yellow fever. Prevention is focused on reducing the adult mosquito populations, controlling mosquito larvae and protecting individuals from mosquito bites. Depending on the mosquito vector, and the affected community, a variety of prevention methods may be deployed at one time.[16][17][18]

Prevention 2

There are other methods that an individual can use to protect themselves from mosquito bites. Anticipating mosquito contact and using a topical mosquito repellant with DEET or icaridin is recommended. Draining or covering water receptacles, both indoor and outdoors, is also a simple but effective prevention method.[19]

Treatment

In terms of management , since there are different types of diseases a mosquito can carry it would depend on the result of the diagnosis. However, management is typically supportive.[15]

Epidemiology

Mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue fever and malaria, typically affect developing countries and areas with tropical climates. Mosquito vectors are sensitive to climate changes and tend to follow seasonal patterns. Between years there are often dramatic shifts in incidence rates. The occurrence of this phenomenon in endemic areas makes mosquito-borne viruses difficult to treat.[20]

Research

On March 23, 2020 the NIH conducted a trial that indicated a vaccine designed to provide broad protection against mosquito-borne diseases, specifically against mosquito saliva which evades the host immune system, is safe and causes a strong immune response.[21][22]

References

  1. Lee, Hobart; Halverson, Sara; Ezinwa, Ngozi (September 2018). "Mosquito-Borne Diseases". Primary Care. 45 (3): 393–407. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2018.05.001. ISSN 1558-299X.
  2. "World Mosquito Program: Innovating Disease Control | Gates Philanthropy Partners". www.gatesphilanthropypartners.org.
  3. "WHO | Malaria". www.who.int. Archived from the original on 2018-02-10. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
  4. Powell, JR (June 2018). "Mosquito-Borne Human Viral Diseases: Why Aedes aegypti?". The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 98 (6): 1563–1565. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.17-0866. PMID 29557341. Archived from the original on 11 April 2023. Retrieved 17 May 2023.
  5. Al Amin, A. S. M.; Wadhwa, Roopma (2023). "Helminthiasis". StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. Archived from the original on 26 January 2023. Retrieved 17 May 2023.
  6. Castro, Gilbert A. (1996). "Helminths: Structure, Classification, Growth, and Development". Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. ISBN 978-0-9631172-1-2. Archived from the original on 2020-02-17. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  7. Burgess, Ian F. (2003). "Myiasis: maggot infestation". Nursing Times. 99 (13): 51–53. ISSN 0954-7762. Archived from the original on 1 July 2023. Retrieved 17 May 2023.
  8. Francesconi, F; Lupi, O (January 2012). "Myiasis". Clinical microbiology reviews. 25 (1): 79–105. doi:10.1128/CMR.00010-11. PMID 22232372. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  9. "NPS". nps.gov. Retrieved 8 July 2024.
  10. Lee, Hobart; Halverson, Sara; Ezinwa, Ngozi (September 2018). "Mosquito-Borne Diseases". Primary Care. 45 (3): 393–407. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2018.05.001. ISSN 1558-299X. Archived from the original on 23 June 2022. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  11. "Mosquito-Borne Diseases | NIOSH | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 21 February 2020. Archived from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 14 May 2023.
  12. Thongsripong, P; Hyman, JM; Kapan, DD; Bennett, SN (July 2021). "Human-Mosquito Contact: A Missing Link in Our Understanding of Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission Dynamics". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 114 (4): 397–414. doi:10.1093/aesa/saab011. PMC 8266639. PMID 34249219.
  13. Susannah F Locke (1 December 2008). "Bug vs Bug: How do mosquitoes survive deadly viruses unscathed?". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 2011-08-11.
  14. Bhattacharjee, Swagato; Ghosh, Debanjan; Saha, Rounak; Sarkar, Rima; Kumar, Saurav; Khokhar, Manoj; Pandey, Rajan Kumar (23 April 2023). "Mechanism of Immune Evasion in Mosquito-Borne Diseases". Pathogens. 12 (5): 635. doi:10.3390/pathogens12050635. ISSN 2076-0817. Retrieved 8 July 2024.
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Mosquito-Borne Diseases". www.amboss.com. Retrieved 12 July 2024.
  16. "Mosquito Bites". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1 June 2022. Archived from the original on 23 December 2022. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  17. "Progress on malaria vaccines". National Institutes of Health (NIH). 27 February 2017. Archived from the original on 28 January 2023. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  18. Jones, RT; Ant, TH; Cameron, MM; Logan, JG (15 February 2021). "Novel control strategies for mosquito-borne diseases". Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences. 376 (1818): 20190802. doi:10.1098/rstb.2019.0802. PMID 33357056. Archived from the original on 1 July 2023. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
  19. Bellini, Romeo; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim (2014-07-11). "A review of the vector management methods to prevent and control outbreaks of West Nile virus infection and the challenge for Europe". Parasites & Vectors. 7: 323. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-323. ISSN 1756-3305. PMC 4230500. PMID 25015004.
  20. Marreiros, Humberto; Marreiros, Humberto Filipe; Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulalia (January 2012). "Osteoporosis in paediatric patients with spina bifida". The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 35 (1): 9–21. doi:10.1179/2045772311Y.0000000042. ISSN 1079-0268. PMC 3240921. PMID 22330186.
  21. "Universal mosquito vaccine tested". National Institutes of Health (NIH). 22 June 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2024.
  22. Manning, Jessica E.; Oliveira, Fabiano; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Herbert, Samantha; Meneses, Claudio; Kamhawi, Shaden; Baus, Holly Ann; Han, Alison; Czajkowski, Lindsay; Rosas, Luz Angela; Cervantes-Medina, Adriana; Athota, Rani; Reed, Susan; Mateja, Allyson; Hunsberger, Sally; James, Emma; Pleguezuelos, Olga; Stoloff, Gregory; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Memoli, Matthew J. (27 June 2020). "Safety and immunogenicity of a mosquito saliva peptide-based vaccine: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1 trial". Lancet (London, England). 395 (10242): 1998–2007. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31048-5. ISSN 1474-547X.