Video:Marburg virus disease

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Marburg virus disease, is a severe type of viral hemorrhagic fever in humans.[1] Marburg and Ebola viruses both are from the Filoviridae family, both diseases are rare and but have caused outbreaks with very high fatality rates.[1]


Initial symptoms typically include fever, headache, and muscle pain.[2] A few days later a rash, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain may occur.[2] Onset of symptoms is typically 5 to 10 days following exposure.[2] Complications may include liver failure, delirium, pancreatitis, and severe bleeding.[2] Measles-like rash due to Marburg virus disease have been known to occur with this disease.[3]


The cause is Marburgvirus, of which there are two types Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV).[4] These viruses normally circulates among African fruit bats, without resulting in ill affects.[5] Spread can occur from these bats to people and than between people.[1] Spread between people is by direct or indirect contact with contaminated body fluids, including during sex.[6][1]


Diagnosis is by blood tests.[7] It presents similar to Ebola virus disease (EVD).[1] Immunofluorescence assays are used to confirm marburgvirus presence in cell cultures. During an outbreak, virus isolation and electron microscopy are most often not feasible options. The most common diagnostic methods are therefore RT-PCR.[8][9] In conjunction with antigen-capture ELISA.[10][11]


Prevention involves avoiding bats in central Africa and using appropriate personal protective equipment when caring for sick people.[12] Treatment involves supportive care and this improves outcomes.[1] This may include intravenous fluids, blood products, oxygen therapy, and electrolytes.[13] About half of those who are infected die as a result.[1]


MVD is rare.[5] It generally occurs as outbreaks within Africa.[5] The disease was initially recognized in 1967 and since than 588 cases have been diagnosed.[5][1]Primates may also be affected.[5]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 "Marburg virus disease". Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Signs and Symptoms | Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF) | CDC". 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  3. "Details - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)". Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  4. Spickler, Anna. "Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus Infections" (PDF).
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 "About Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever | Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF) | CDC". 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  6. "Transmission | Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF) | CDC". 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  7. "Ebola Virus Disease & Marburg Virus Disease - Chapter 3 - 2018 Yellow Book | Travelers' Health | CDC". Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  8. Gibb, T.; Norwood Jr, D. A.; Woollen, N.; Henchal, E. A. (2001). "Development and evaluation of a fluorogenic 5′-nuclease assay to identify Marburg virus". Molecular and Cellular Probes. 15 (5): 259–266. doi:10.1006/mcpr.2001.0369. PMID 11735297.
  9. Zhai, J.; Palacios, G.; Towner, J. S.; Jabado, O.; Kapoor, V.; Venter, M.; Grolla, A.; Briese, T.; Paweska, J.; Swanepoel, R.; Feldmann, H.; Nichol, S. T.; Lipkin, W. I. (2006). "Rapid Molecular Strategy for Filovirus Detection and Characterization". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 45 (1): 224–226. doi:10.1128/JCM.01893-06. PMC 1828965. PMID 17079496.
  10. Saijo, M.; Niikura, M.; Maeda, A.; Sata, T.; Kurata, T.; Kurane, I.; Morikawa, S. (2005). "Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to Marburg virus nucleoprotein (NP) that can be used for NP-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". Journal of Medical Virology. 76 (1): 111–118. doi:10.1002/jmv.20332. PMID 15778962. S2CID 24207187.
  11. Saijo, M.; Niikura, M.; Ikegami, T.; Kurane, I.; Kurata, T.; Morikawa, S. (2006). "Laboratory Diagnostic Systems for Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers Developed with Recombinant Proteins". Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 13 (4): 444–451. doi:10.1128/CVI.13.4.444-451.2006. PMC 1459631. PMID 16603611.
  12. "Prevention | Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF) | CDC". 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  13. "Treatment | Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF) | CDC". 25 February 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2021.