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Japanese encephalitis is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus. While most infections result in little or no symptoms, occasional inflammation of the brain occurs.[1] In these cases, symptoms may include headache, vomiting, fever, confusion and seizures.[2]There is no treatment for Japanese encephalitis, while management is supportive.[3]

Signs and symptoms

Japanese encephalitis virus has an incubation period of 2 to 26 days.[4] The vast majority of infections are asymptomatic: only 1 in 250 infections develop into encephalitis.[5][6]Severe rigors may mark the onset of this disease in humans. Fever, headache and malaise are other non-specific symptoms of this disease which may last for a period of between 1 and 6 days.[7]


Japanese encephalitis is transmitted via the bites of infected Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquito [8].This is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus .[9]


JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 genetically and antigenically related viruses, some which are particularly severe in horses, and four known to infect humans including West Nile virus.[10]


Japanese encephalitis is diagnosed by commercially available tests detecting JE virus-specific IgM antibodies in serum and /or cerebrospinal fluid, for example by IgM capture ELISA.[11]


Infection with Japanese encephalitis confers lifelong immunity. There are currently three vaccines available: SA14-14-2, IXIARO [12] and ChimeriVax-JE .[13]


There is no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis and management is supportive,[3] with assistance given for feeding, breathing or seizure control as required. Raised intracranial pressure may be managed with mannitol.[14] .


Japanese encephalitis is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with up to 70 thousand cases reported annually.[15] Case-fatality ratio range from 20 percent to 30 percent for this virus[16].


  1. "Japanese Encephalitis". CDC. August 2015. Archived from the original on 24 May 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  2. "Symptoms and Treatment". CDC. August 2015. Archived from the original on 17 June 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Solomon T, Dung NM, Kneen R, Gainsborough M, Vaughn DW, Khanh VT (2000). "Japanese encephalitis". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 68 (9): 405–15. doi:10.1136/jnnp.68.4.405. PMC 1736874. PMID 10727474.
  4. Moloney, Rachael M.; Kmush, Brittany; Rudolph, Kara E.; Cummings, Derek A. T.; Lessler, Justin (7 May 2014). "Incubation Periods of Mosquito-Borne Viral Infections: A Systematic Review". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 90 (5): 882–891. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0403. PMC 4015582. PMID 24639305.
  5. Simon, LV; Kruse, B (January 2018). Encephalitis, Japanese. StatPearls. PMID 29262148. Archived from the original on 28 August 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  6. Peterson, Phillip K.; Toborek, Michal (2014-07-08). Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration. Springer. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-4939-1071-7. Archived from the original on 28 August 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  7. Kumar, Parveen; Clark, Michael L. (2016-06-29). Kumar and Clark's Clinical Medicine E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-7020-6600-9. Archived from the original on 28 August 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  8. "About Japanese Encephalitis". Japanese Encephalitis Virus. 20 May 2024. Archived from the original on 3 June 2024. Retrieved 2 June 2024.
  9. Solomon, T. (2006). "Control of Japanese encephalitis – within our grasp?". New England Journal of Medicine. 355 (9): 869–71. doi:10.1056/NEJMp058263. PMID 16943399.
  10. Lobigs M, Diamond MS (2012). "Feasibility of cross-protective vaccination against flaviviruses of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex". Expert Rev Vaccines. 11 (2): 177–87. doi:10.1586/erv.11.180. PMC 3337329. PMID 22309667.
  11. Shrivastva A, Tripathi NK, Parida M, Dash PK, Jana AM, Lakshmana Rao PV (2008). "Comparison of a dipstick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with commercial assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus-specific IgM antibodies". J Postgrad Med. 54 (3): 181–5. doi:10.4103/0022-3859.40959. PMID 18626163.
  12. "Jeev an inactivated Japanese Encephalitis vaccine launched in Hyderabad". 15 September 2012. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
  13. Schiøler KL, Samuel M, Wai KL (2007). "Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD004263. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004263.pub2. PMC 6532601. PMID 17636750.
  14. Japanese encephalitis~treatment at eMedicine
  15. Campbell GL, Hills SL, Fischer M, Jacobson JA, Hoke CH, Hombach JM, Marfin AA, Solomon T, Tsai TF, Tsu VD, Ginsburg AS (November 2011). "Estimmated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis: a systematic review". Bull World Health Organ. 89 (10): 766–74. doi:10.2471/BLT.10.085233. PMC 3209971. PMID 22084515.
  16. "Japanese Encephalitis - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow Book | Travelers' Health | CDC". Archived from the original on 10 May 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.